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Sash Curtains

Sheer or semisheer fabric shirred (gathered) onto a rod at the top and bottom of the window frame.
3D Rendering

The process or product of converting two-dimensional (length/width) images into three-dimensional images (length/width/depth) using sophisticated computer software. This creates a photorealistic image in which the viewer can "move" around and view the scene from different angles.

A 588 SteelThe designation given to steel that rusts only to a certain point and in doing so creates its own rustproof finish.
A LampDesignation for an arbitrary-shaped, standard light globe or lamp bulb.
AaheThe American Association of Housing Educators.
Aalto# Alvar (1899-1976)Important Finnish designer of several modern classic furniture pieces.
AbacusThe slab that forms the uppermost member of a column capital.
AbodeLiving quarters or residence.
Abrasion ResistanceThe ability of a fabric to resist wear from friction, rubbing, or other abrasive action.
Abrasion TestMaterial abrasion test measures the ability of warp and weft yarns to withstand friction from wear.
Abrasion WearDistress or wear marks on fabrics, wood or metal. Created when a furniture or accessory surface experiences friction in use or handling.
Absorption (Light)The light energy (wavelengths) not reflected by an object or substance. The color of a substance depends on the wavelength reflected.
AbstractDesign elements showing general forms instead of a detailed and realistic representation.
Abstract DesignA type of decorative design that may be based on natural or even geometric design, stylized to the point that the source is not recognizable, and the design is therefore open to interpretation.
AbutmentsAbutment is the part of the wall or pier on which the arch resists.
AcanthusOrnamental design motif representing leaves of the acanthus plant, native to the Mediterranean.
Acanthus LeafA leaf decoration often used on furniture, particularly on brackets and legs.
Acanthus LeavesA representation of the lobed leaves of the acanthus plant used as a decorative motif.
Accent ColorsContrast colors used to enhance room color schemes.
Accent LightA type of light that highlights an area to emphasize that aspect of a room's character.
Accent LightingControlled and specifically focused lighting for accenting interior decor elements or architectural details.
Accent RugsSmall rugs, often called scatter or throw rugs, used for art accents, in areas where water may spilt onto the floor (such as kitchens and bathrooms), or to catch dirt where traffic enters the interior.
AccessibleCapable of entering or exiting a building or an area without obstruction.
Accessible DesignInterior and exterior design that meets prescribed requirements for people with disabilities. Guidelines and laws related to accessible design include such issues as standard dimensions and features such as door widths, clear space for wheelchair mobility, countertop heights, audible and visual signals, switch and outlet height, and more.
Accessible DesignsDesigns that accommodate persons with physical disabilities.
AccessoriesSmall objects such as vases, books,lamps, plants and florals,and sculptures used to adorn and personalize a room.
Accordion DoorFolding door, with small vertical panels, that stacks against itself.
AcetateA synthetic fiber made from cellulose, which is a common material in the cell walls of many plants. It is usually combined with other fibers to add a luxurious feel and appearance.
AchromaticColors without hue, namely black, white, and gray.
AcknowledgmentsThe paperwork forms that the supplier sends to the designer to indicate what the supplier interpreted the designer's order to be.
Acorn (Or Acorn Turning)Turned ornament resembling an acorn; common in Jacobean furniture as finials on chair posts and bedposts, as pendants and as the profile of leg turnings in Jacobean tables.
Acoustical PlasterThis is gypsum mixture , which is employed as a final coat to serve the purpose of a sound
Acoustical Tile/PlasterWall and ceiling tiles and plaster that help control noise.
AcousticsAcoustics or sound is a form of wave motion created by a vibrating body and is transmitted in all directions in the form of spherical waves consisting of alternate compressions and rarefactions.
AcrilanA synthetic fiber used in producing Wear-Dated fabrics.
AcroteriumOriginally an ornament on the roof corners of Greek temples. In classical furniture, similar ornaments applied to the top corners of secretaries, bookcases, highboys and other furniture.
AcrylicA water-soluble paint made with pigments and synthetic resin; used as a fast-drying substitute to oil paint.
Acrylic PaintA synthetic resin, water-based paint.
Acrylic Rangoli

Acrylic Rangoli is majorly a form of tradition of Rajasthan and Gujarat art, made using decorative items such as rhinestones, beads, kundans, pearls and threads etched over an acrylic sheet and painted with glass colours and can be made reusable as well.It is usually used for Floor Decoration in India in feastive season.

Acrylic SheetA flat plate or sheet of acrylic (a hard plastic) that can be etched to allow special effects. The most common is the exit sign.
Active BalanceAnother term for asymmetrical balance where objects that are not alike balance each other, or like objects are placed at unequal distances from a central point. It is termed active because it requires some effort or activity of the eye to analyze or discern the balance.
Active Solar SystemA mechanical system of solar heat collection for space and water heating.
Actual DensityThe three-dimensional, literal mass or density of a piece of furniture.
Adam StyleBritish neoclassical style that predominated during the later half of the 1700's. This style developed out of reaction to the more fanciful rococo style of the 1750's, and is characterized by slender, graceful lines, refined shapes and restrained ornamentation.
Adam# Robert (1728-92)The most influential of four Scottish architect/ designer brothers. His English Neoclassic work was influenced by the uncovering of Pompeii and Herculaneum near Naples, Italy.
Adaptable DesignsDesigns that can be easily changed to accommodate a person with disabilities.
AdaptationFurniture that captures the feel of an original design or period, but differs in some details.
Adaptive RestorationRestoring older buildings for purposes other than those for which they were constructed.
AddendaCorrections or changes are made to the contract documents by the issuance of addenda. Addenda are written by the person or firm responsible for the original set of contract documents.
AdelphiGreek term meaning brother, which was the trade name of the three brothers Adam. These brothers are famous for the Adam style of the 18th Century.
AditA sloping tunnel or shaft driven through a hill or mountainside to reach beds of rock.
AdobeLarge building brick made of clay, baked in the sun.
AestheticsThe philosophy of art and beauty. The part of art and design that is beautiful and appealing to the senses.
AffinityThe chemical compatibility of fibers to dyestuffs.
AfghanA coverlet or shawl of wool, knitted or crocheted in colorful geometric designs.
AfterimagesWhen the human eye focuses on a strong color for several seconds or minutes, then focuses on a neutral area, the complement of that color will appear in shadow form.
AgaA closed iron range fueled by coke, oil, or gas.
AgeingDecorative technique used to create the effect of wear-and-tear on a wooden, painted, plastic or other surfaces.
AggregatesAggregates are those chemically inert materials which when bonded by cement paste form concrete.
AgrillaceousA fine-grained sedimentary rock with grains less than 1/16mm, e.g. clay.
AidThe American Institute of Interior Designers combined in 1975 with NSID to form ASID, the American Society of Interior Designers.
Air BedA vinyl or rubber mattress core that's filled with air for support. Can be upholstered and covered with cushioning and ticking and be used in combination with a foundation. Find beds and mattresses.
Air Compression PaintingSpray painting powered by an air compression machine that allows paint to be diluted for application.
Airborne SoundAn airborne sound is one, which is transmitted through air, and travels direct to the ear of the person.
Air-Brushprinting Dye sprayed through stencils by pressure ink jet guns.
Air-ConditioningCool air piped into an interior through an air-conditioning unit or through a furnace unit.
Air-Exchange UnitDraws fresh outside air into buildings and expels stale, used air. Necessary in a superinsulated and tight structure with few or no windows.
Airless Paint SprayingMechanical spraying of nondiluted paint.
AisleA passageway separated by an arcade, running parallel to the nave of a church.
AlabasterA fine-textured, regularly white, gypsum that is easily carved and translucent when thin.
Albers, Josef (1888-1976)Color expert in simultaneous and successive contrast. Albers taught at the Bauhaus in Germany and at Yale University.
AlcoveRecessed part of a room. Bed alcoves exist in Pompeian rooms, and such placing of the sleeping quarters was common in northern Europe through the Middle Ages and later. In the 18th Century special beds were designed to fit such recesses. Alcoves are also used for bookcases and cabinets, dining groups, etc.
Alkyds, Alkyd EnamelOil-modified resin paints. Alkyd enamels produce glossy surfaces.
Allied Board Of TradeA national credit agency that specializes in the interior design industry.
Allocate SpaceTo assign space; to determine the location and layout of rooms or areas.
AlloyA substance formed by fusing one or more metals, or a metal and nonmetal.
All-WoodWooden furniture construction where all visible parts arc made of wood.
AlmeryA cupboard for doles of pensioners, family retainers.
AlterationA change in usage of building or a structural change , such as some addition or some deletion or change of the fixtures or equipment.
Alternate ComplementA four-color scheme of a triad with the direct complement of one of the hues.
AlternationA type of rhythm wherein two shapes alternate?one, then the other. A classic example is the egg-and-dart molding seen in chapter 15.
AluminumA lightweight, silver-colored metal used extensively in commercial applications, and occasionally by metal artists.
Ambient General LightingOverall lighting that covers a large area, often in the form of overhead luminaires.
Ambient LightGeneral light that surrounds a room and is not focused.
Ambient LightingGeneral illumination that surrounds a room and is not directional.
AmbryIn medieval churches a recess for the storage of goods. The addition of doors gave it the cupboard form. The English equivalent became a large cupboard with doors; the interiors were fitted with shelves for storage.
AmbulantesA small portable table.
AmbulatoryA place for walking; the aisle in a cathedral.
AmenitiesFacilities shared by condominium owners or available to renters in luxury apartments. These include swimming pools, tennis courts, and entertainment or athletic facilities.
American ColonialTerm loosely applied to all American furniture used by the colonies prior to the American Revolution. This style includes rough handmade pieces of the early American frontier, New England versions of Jacobean and Puritan (Cromwellian), furniture imported by settlers from Europe and Americanized versions of formal English and European designs. There is no clear division of this period but most agree to group it into Early Colonial and Late Colonial (American Provincial).
American CountrySimple designs originating from the earliest settlers in America during the Early Colonial period (see above). These pieces are very simple and often rough in design. This charming style is still very popular today.
American Empire (1820-60)The interior design title of the period concurrent with the antebellum Greek Revival homes. Colors influenced by Napoleonic choices of bold, deep hues.
American Frontier (American Primitive)This style of late 1700's to 1800's was created to meet the demands of the western frontier. Noted pieces include wagon seat twin chairs, sinks without plumbing, cupboards and cobbler's benches. Woods primarily used included ash, hickory, maple, black walnut and pine. Pieces of this period were usually painted black or in primary colors.
American OrientalA machine-made domestic rug with Oriental design and colors to resemble a hand-tied Oriental rug.
AmericanaObjects and decor items that are characteristic of American history or culture.
AmoriniCupid ornaments found on Italian Renaissance furniture.
Ampere Or AmpThe measurement of electrical current in a circuit.
AnaglyptaEmbossed wall or ceiling coverings that resemble plaster, hammered copper, or hand-tooled leather.
AnalogousColors that are next to each other on the standard color wheel or as they occur in a rainbow or prism. An analogous color scheme usually contains three to six adjacent colors.
Analogous ColorHues that are next to one another on the color wheel. Examples would be red and orange or blue and green.
Analogous SchemeSee Harmonious Color Scheme.
AnalysisA part of programming in which information is assessed and priorities established.
Anchor PilesIn foundations, when piles are used to provide anchorage against horizontal pull from sheet piling walls or other pulling forces , they are termed as Anchor piles.
Ancient Greece, The Golden Age (Fifth Century B.C.)Era of the Parthenon and height of philosophical development and architectural excellence.
Angel BedA bed with a canopy but no front support. Find bedroom furniture.
AngoraSoft long hair of the Angora goat, often called mohair. The animal is native to Anatolia in the Angora province of Turkey.
Angular LinesAny straight line used in interior design that is neither horizontal nor vertical. Angular lines may be diagonal lines in one direction or even or uneven zigzag lines. Angular lines suggest movement and action.
Aniline DyeTerm applies to dyes derived from coal tar, which are used to color fabrics and leather.
Aniline-PlusTerm sometimes applied to leather finished with an opaque pigmented dye. Find leather furniture.
Animal Hair Felt PadModerately resilient carpet underlay of 100 percent animal hair felted into padding.
Animal Skin RugsRugs of zebra, bear, sheep, and other animal skins.
AnodizeTo put a protective oxide film on metal through an electrolytic process with chemicals and an electric charge.
AnthemionA honeysuckle design from classical Greek decorative motifs. Term refers to any conventional flower or leaf design.
AnthropometricsThe study and comparison of human body measurements (i.e., anthropometry).
AntimonyA silver-white, crystalline, metallic element used in alloys.
AntiqueCould be anything ranging from a piece of furniture to art. The U.S. government considers any item over 100 years old to be an antique, whereas most collectors use 50 years as a benchmark.
Antique FinishA finish made to appear older by the application of a darker color over the top of a lighter finish.
Antique Finish (Or Antiquing)A paint or stain finish applied to an object to give an aged look.
Antique SatinA drapery fabric that has a lustrous effect, normally made of rayon/acetate blends.
AntiquesFurniture made before 1840 (U.S. Customs definition).
AntiquingThe process in which an object or surface is intentionally distressed or discolored to provide the appearance of age.
Antiscalding Valve (Pressure-Balancing Valve)A fitting that contains a piston that automatically re-sponds to changes in line water pressure to maintain temperature; the valve blocks abrupt drops or rises in temperature.
Antistatic FinishesReduce conduction or static electricity.
AntronA registered Trademark of DuPont for Type 66 nylon fibers, which are used in many applications including fabrics.
ApartmentA home or unit housed with other units that are rented for living spaces.
Apothecary ChestA low chest with small drawers that was originally used to store herbs for cooking and medicinal purposes. Find home accessory items.
Appliance GarageA small cabinet intended for hous-ng a small appliance, such as a standing mixer It is mounted on the countertop below the wall units and typically features a roll-up (tambour) or top-hinged door Appliance garages keep the work surface unob-structed.
AppliquéA technique whereby pieces of fabric are layered on top of one another and joined with decorative stitches.
ApronThe wooden panel connecting the surface and legs of a table or chair.
ApseA semicircular or polygonal projection of a church.
AquatintPrintmaking process used to create areas of solid color, as well as gradations of white through black tones. Usually has the appearance of transparent watercolor.
ArabesqueDecorative scroll work or other intricate ornamentation consisting of foliage, vases, leaves and fruits, or fantastic human and animal figures.
ArcadeA series of arched columns.
ArchAn Arch may be defined as mechanical arrangement of wedge shaped blocks of stones or bricks mutually supporting each other and supported at the end by abutments.
Arch RingIt is a course of stones or bricks having a curve similar to that of the arch.
Arch System ConstructionA building type in existence since antiquity; the arch is held together with a splayed keystone under compression.
ArchitectA professional who plans three-dimensional space and creates floor plans and blueprints.
Architectural ElementsThe walls, floors, ceilings, windows, doors, fireplaces, cabinetry, and other fixtures or details that are built in to the interior.
Architectural GlazingSee glass.
Architectural Or Structural LightingPermanently installed fixtures or luminaires. The wiring must be in place in advance.
Architectural RodsNonresidential drapery and curtain rods that are usually drawn with wands or batons rather than a traverse cord and pulley.
ArchitraveThe lower horizontal band of an entablature, located below the frieze.
Area RugA small rug or carpet which covers only part of the floor. Find an area rug.
Area RugsDefine a specific area, such as a conversation area.
Arm CapsCoverings, usually crafted from fabric, to protect the top surface of sofa and chair arms.
Arm ChairSeating that has both a backrest and armrests. Find an arm chair for your living room or dining room.
ArmchairA chair with armrests as distinguished from a side chair without arms.
ArmoireA large wardrobe or movable closet for storing clothing. Often also used to hide television and audio/video equipment and computer workstations.
Arrow FootA cylindrical foot that's tapered and separated from the leg by a turned ring.
Art DecoA streamlined, geometric style of home furnishings and architecture popular in the 1920's and 1930's. Characteristics include rounded fronts, wood furniture with chrome hardware and, or, glass tops.
Art Deco (1918-45)A brief period of design between World Wars I and II that has been repeatedly revived in interior design style and color.
Art GlassDecorative glass - includes stained, beveled, fused, blown, etched, leaded and cut.
Art LightingA term for luminaires or fixtures that are in themselves works of art where light is the medium of artistic expression.
Art ModerneThe Paris Expedition of 1925 introduced a fantastically modern design called Art Moderne. This styling is familiar because of its angular and straight shape. Geometric patterns are the main decoration.
Art NouveauDecorative style developed in France between 1890 and 1910. Tiffany lamps are a great example of this styles ornate and flowing lines.
Art Nouveau (1890-1910)A style of design based on natural floral motifs and colors.
Art PrintA print that is a reproduction of an original piece of artwork. Find an art print.
Art RugA rug with a decorative texture or pattern of such interest and quality that it can be considered a piece of art.
Articulation ClassA single-number summation of how effective a ceiling is in absorbing sound reaching it from over low partitions.
Articulation IndexMeasures the performance of all the elements of a particular configuration working together, including ceiling absorption, space dividers, furniture, light fixtures, partitions, background masking systems, and HVAC system sound.
Artificial LightIncandescent and fluorescent light. Amount and direction of artificial lighting affect color hue, value, and intensity.
Artificial StoneA fabricated product that imitates natural stone and is generally used for wall facing.
Artisan StyleA style characterized by fine but not overly ornate workmanship that celebrates the maker's community identity or ethnicity.
Artistic LightingAnother term for accent lighting.
Artist's PaintOil or acrylic paint in small bottles or tubes.
Arts & CraftsAlso commonly known as Mission style. This style was popular from the late 1800's through the 1920's. The Arts and Crafts movement was a reaction against the mass-produced and ornate Victorian furniture of that time.
Arts And CraftsAn architectural and decorative style that began in England during the late nineteenth century, where it was known as the Aesthetic Movement. Lead by William Morris, the movement rejected industrialization and encouraged fine crafts-manship and simplicity in design.
Arts And Crafts MovementA school of thought at the close of the Victorian era that espoused a return to handmade, quality furnishings rather than machine-made items.
Asahi WarePottery made at Uji, Kyoto Prefecture, since the 17th century. Tends to be made of coarse, sandy clay. Kiln is still in making and is well recognized for its modern, computer-controlled technology.
Asbestos ShinglesA fireproof roofing material in several color choices laid in overlapping manner and nailed tight.
AshlarA block of stone with straight edges for use in building.
Asian StyleA general term referring to styles of the Far East. Such as Chinese, Japanese, or Korean designs for example. Furniture with Asian characteristics are popular as a subset of contemporary style.
AsidThe American Society of Interior Designers.
Asphalt VarnishThis is made by dissolving melted hard asphalt in linseed oil and thinned with turpentine or petroleum spirit. This varnish is chiefly used to give a black shop coat to fabricated iron and steel products.
Assembly BuildingThese shall include any building or part of a building where group of people gathers for amusement , recreation , social religious or for some other reason.
AstragalSmall, semi-circular molding applied to the glazing bars on cabinets and bookcases.
Asymmetrical BalanceThe placement of different objects on either side of a center point where they balance each other. Also called informal balance, asymmetry requires a discerning eye and sensitivity to achieve the balance.
AtriumThe open entry hall of a Roman house.
Atrium DoorA French-door pair with one fixed side. Also called a patio door.
Attached Back PillowA pillow treatment that can't be removed from the upholstered piece, commonly found on sofas, loveseats and chairs.
Attached DwellingsResidences with shared walls, such as condominiums, town houses, twin houses, and multiplexes.
Attic WindowPivoting window installed in the pitched roof of an attic.
AubussonA scenic tapestry used for wall hangings and upholstery. Named for Aubusson, France. Find a wall tapestry.
Aubusson RugsFlat tapestry French rugs woven in both historic and contemporary colors and patterns.
Austrian Shade (Or Austrian Blind)A decorative window treatment with a scalloped lower edge. When the blind is drawn up it maintains the scalloped edge, creating folds of ruched fabric. Find shades and blinds.
Austrian ShadesScalloped and gathered shades that fold up. They are full and formal looking.
Austrian ValanceValance in the same style as the Austrian shade.
Automatic Sensor DimmerA device that automatically turns on and controls the level of artificial light to supplement natural light in order to keep the light at an even level of brightness.
Auxiliary HeatingA backup heating method needed for solar energy systems when the sun cannot supply all the heating needs of the interior.
AvrilA registered trademark of FMC Corporation for viscose rayon.
Awning WindowA window that is hinged at the top and swings outward when open.
Axminster CarpetA Jacquard-woven carpet where colored yarns are inserted as needed. Used extensively in nonresidential carpeting.
B LampA designation for a candelabra lamp or bulb that is a smooth, torpedo-shaped oval.
Baccalaureate DegreeThe degree granted by colleges and universities and some design schools following four to five years of general education and specific topic study.
Bachelor's ChestA small low chest originating in the 1700's. Find a chest of drawers.
BackThe inner surface of the wall, which is not exposed to weather, is termed as back.
Back BandAdditional molding piece adhered to the outer edge of casing to create a more substantial appearance.
Back Flap HingesThis type of hinges are used with thin shutters where butt hinges are not used. These hinges are fixed to the back side of the shutters and frame.
Back PanelA panel used to cover the back of a case piece; often made of hardboard.
BackingA coating that is applied to the back of fabric to prevent seam slippage and excess wear.
BacklightingIllumination coming from a source behind or at the side of an object.
BacksplashA backsplash is a durable material, often tile, that is placed on the wall behind a kitchen or bathroom counter in order to deflect the water or other liquids from staining the wall.
BacksplatA slat of wood in the middle of a chair back.
BaffleA device fixed to a light fitting to prevent light from glaring into the eyes.
Baffled CeilingCeiling hung with panels of wood, metal, or fabric that serve as a screen.
Bag Table18th Century serving table with drawers and a cloth bag attached.
BaggingA painting technique in which a crumpled bag (or other material) is dabbed onto a glazed or emulsioned wall to create textured patterns.
BaguetteA small convex molding with semi-circular contours.
BailA metal ring or hoop forming a handle.
BaizeWool fabric resembling felt (usually green) used on gaming tables.
BakeliteA trade name for one of the first plastics to come into widespread use. The colors of this plastic are usually limited to browns and blacks. Bakelite was a popular material used in producing early pieces of modern furniture.
Baker's RackCommonly an open slatted back storage unit with shelves used for storing goods in the kitchen such as cook books, wine, etc. Most commonly made of wood and metal or a combination of the two. Find a baker's rack.
BalanceThe arrangement of objects around an epicenter, or creating an even feel or atmosphere in a room.
Balanced FootingIt is commonly known as Strap footing. In this the load from the outer column is balanced by the load from the inner column through a cantilever beam , acting through a fulcrum.
Balanced LightLight from more than one direction meant to eliminate glare and high contrast of light and dark, or unflattering or fatiguing shadows.
BalconyA horizontal cantilevered projection including a hand-rail or balustrade to serve as passage or sitting out place.
Ball & ClawA carved lions or birds claw clutching a sphere, usually at the end of a cabriole leg or tables base.
Ball FootThe rounded end of a turned leg having a hooded effect.
BallastThe connecting mechanism within a fluorescent lamp.
Balloon Back ChairA rounded back Hepplewhite style chair in the shape of a hot-air balloon. Find a chair for your living room or dining room.
Balloon ShadeA window treatment with gathered fabric and soft billowy folds. Find window treatments and curtains.
Balloon ValanceValance in the same style as the balloon shade.
Balloon, Pouf, Or Cloud ShadesLoosely gathered, full, soft, and billowy shades that pull up from the bottom.
BalusterIt is a wooden , metal or masonary vertical member supporting a hand rail.
BalustradeIt usually consists of a row of balusters surmounted by a rail and is provided to perform the function of a fence or guard for the users of the stair
Bamboo ShadesShades woven of split bamboo and a cotton warp. Also called matchstick shades.
Bamboo TurningStyle of turning and painting wood to resemble bamboo. Popular in the 19th Century.
BandingAn Inlay or Marquetry that produces a color or grain contrast along the perimeter of a surface such as a tabletop.
Bandy LegAmerican colonial term for the cabriole, or curved leg.
Banister-Back ChairGenerally made of maple and often ebonized. Features vertical split banisters in the back. Widely used in rural America in the 1700's.
Bank Of LightA large, well-lit area of light.
BanquetteA long upholstered seat, settee or bench, that's usually built-in. Term also refers to the ledge at the back of a buffet.
BarA counter like piece of furniture or built-in cabinetry typically used for mixing and serving drinks. Find a bar or pub table.
Bar StoolA stool that has a seat height of about 30", opposed to a counter stool that normally has a seat height of 24" to 26". Find a bar stool.
Barge BoardIt is a timber board used to hold the common rafters forming verge.
BargeboardElaborately carved trim used around the edge of gables, most commonly found on gothic revival homes.
BarkclothA soft and textured fabric that resembles the bark of a tree.
Barley TwistA furniture leg that's turned so that it resembles a screw thread.
BaroqueA highly ornate decorative style that originated in Italy in the 1600's. The style is characterized by irregular curves, twisted columns, elaborate scrolls and oversize moldings. The Italian equivalent of French "rococo".
Barrel BackA chair or sofa with the arms and back forming a continuous curve. Find living room furniture.
Barrel BoltThis type of bolt is similar to tower bolt except that the stapples are replaced by a barrel.
Barrel ChairA semicircular upholstered chair with a loose seat cushion. Find a living room chair.
Barrel VaultAn arched roof with a roundheaded arch shape.
Barrier-Free DesignDesign for the handicapped that presents no physical obstacles or barriers to access and allows free movement in the environment.
Barrier-Free FixtureA fixture specifically designed to allow access to people who use wheelchairs or who have limited mobility.

Habitable room on the roof with or without toilet / kitchen. Bat- It is the portion of a brick cut across the width or a brick cut by some fraction of its length.

BartileQuarry or clay tile (gray or red) roofing material. It is costly but never needs replacing.
BaseFinish trim used to cover the joint where the wall meets the floor.
Base CabinetA cabinet that rests on the floor and supports a countertop.
Base LightingA light placed next to the floor behind a deflector board that directs light upward.
Base MoldingThe molding placed at the juncture of the floor and wall.
Base PlanA map of the existing kitchen that shows detailed measurements and the location of cabinets, appliances, sinks, and any fixed elements.
BaseboardBase trim made of wood.
Baseboard UnitsPlugged-in or prewired units near the floor for room or area heating.
BasementThe lower storey of a building below or partly below ground level.
BasinA shallow sink.
Basket WeaveA variation of the plain weave where groups of warp and weft threads are carried as one. A balanced weave carries the same number in each direction?two over and two under ; 3/ 3; 4/4. An unbalanced basketweave carries uneven groups of threads, over and under, such as 2/3 or 3/4.
Bas-Relief – LiterallyRaised or indented sculptural patterns that remain close to the surface plane.
Bas-Relief (Low Relief)The type of sculpture wherein the figures protrude only slightly from the background.
BassinetA bed for a baby. Originally basket shaped. Find baby furniture.
Bast FibersNatural cellulosic fibers obtained from the stems and leaves of plants. The best known are linen and jute.
BatikA method of applying dye to cloth that is covered, in part, with a dye-resistant, removable substance such as wax. After dyeing, the resist is removed, and the design appears in the original color against the newly colored background.
BattenIt is the name given to a narrow strip of wood normally nailed over joints of boards.
BattingThin layers of natural or synthetic cloth used to line cushions, pillows, quilts or crafts.
BattlementA parapet indented or crenellated along the upper line of a building.
BauhausA style of the early 1900's taking its name from the German School of Architecture. This minimalist style has had a great effect on contemporary architecture and furniture design.
BayThe area between columns, piers, or buttresses.
Bay Or Bow RodsTraverse or curtain rods that are prebent to a bay or bow window shape.
Bay WindowA window projecting outward from the walls of a room is termed as a bay window.
BeadIt is a rounded or semi-circular moulding provided on the edges of surface of wood.
Bead And ReelA molding of alternating round bead shapes and oval or disk shapes.
BeadboardTraditionally, wood paneling that's routed vertically so that parallel lines span the height of the board. Beadboard is often used as a wall material, wainscoting and on cabinet doors.
BeadingThe process whereby decorative beads are sewn, glued, or otherwise attached to a surface.
BeamThe primary horizontal load-bearing element in a structure.
Beam Or R. C. C. BeamThese are the supporting elements. For bigger span and heavy loading conditions or in situations where intermediate walls are not provided, to reduce the span of the floor slab , R.C.C beam and slab construction is adopted.
Beam System ConstructionSolid beams of steel, wood, or concrete supported with a series of posts.
Beamed CeilingA ceiling with exposed beams or trusses.
Beamless SlabIt is also known as flat slab , it is a type of construction in which the flooring slab is directly supported on columns without the agency of beams or girders.
Bearing Capacity Of SoilThe maximum load per unit area, which the soil or rock can carry without yielding or displacement is termed as the bearing capacity of soil.
Beau BrummelA Georgian dressing table for men. Named after an English fashion arbiter.
Beau-GripA registered trademark of Beaunit for viscose rayon.
BedA coating of sedimentary rock.
Bed Frame (Or Bed Base/Frame)A frame or type of platform that a bed rests on. Usually, a metal or wooden frame with legs used to raise the bed off of the floor, headboards can be attached to most bed frames. Find bed frames and bedroom furnishings.
Bed MoldingSame as crown molding. beltcourse A projecting row of bricks or stone On the facade that separates one story from another; also called stringcourse.
Bed RailsMetal or wooden frames that join a headboard and footboard together and also support the mattress set. Most commonly used bed rail styles include hook-on and bolt-on designs.
Bed SkirtA gathered or pleated strip of cloth reaching from the bottom of a mattress or box spring to the floor. Also referred to as a dust ruffle or bedskirt.
Bedding EnsembleCan be any combination bedspreads, pillow shams, bed skirts, etc. Find bedding sets.
Bedding PlaneSurface in sedimentary rock parallel to the original surface on which the sediment was deposited.
Bed-In-A-BagBedding set that includes flat and fitted sheets, standard pillowcase pair, comforter, bed skirt and standard sham pair. Twin has one pillowcase and sham, king and California king have king size pillowcases and shams.
BedspreadA decorative covering for a bed that can reach to the floor on either side and usually is large enough to cover the pillows. Find a bedspread.
BeidermeierA German furniture style from the first half of the 1800's. The furniture is often plain and squared in form and borrows elements from many styles, particularly French Empire. The Beidermeier style concentrates on strength and comfort at the expense of grace and refinement.
Bell FlowerA hanging flower of three to five petals carved or inlaid one below the other in strings. Used primarily down the legs of tables and chairs, or on chair splats.
Belter, John Henry (D. 1865)A New York furniture craftsman hest known for his Rococo Revival pieces of carved laminated rosewood.
BelvedereA cupola or lantern. The small square towers that rise from the roof of the Italianate buildings of the nineteenth century.
BembergA registered trademark of Beaunit for cuprammonium rayon.
BenchA long seat that can seat at least two people. Benches can be made from any material from wood to concrete. Find an entryway bench or bedroom bench.
Bench Cushion (Or Bench Seat)A long seat cushion that covers the entire deck area of a sofa, loveseat or settee, opposed to individual cushions.
BentwoodA process of steam bending wood for shaping into furniture parts, particularly chairs.
Berber RugsWoven or tufted wool rugs left in their natural color state?white, beige, brown, or charcoal, with flecks of light, or dark neutrals.
BergereAn upholstered French arm chair with closed arms. Features include an exposed wood frame, loose seat cushion and wide proportions. Popular during the Louis XIV and Louis XV periods. Find a living room chair.
Bergere ChairA large armchair, usually associated with the French Country or Provenciale decorating style. It often features an upholstered seat, back, and arms, a loose seat cushion, and an exposed wooden frame.
BermA pile of earth used to create a visual or physical diversion or to add variety to a landscape.
Beveled EdgeA slanted and polished edge finishing detail used on wood, marble, glass, etc.
Beveled GlassPlate glass that has its perimeter ground and polished at an angle.
Beveled PanelingPaneling with edges cut at an angle other than forty-five degrees.
BiasThe cutting and sewing of fabric at a diagonal or 45 degree angle in relationship to the fabrics pattern.
BibelotFrench term for a small decorative and often rare object.
Bibliotheque-BasseA low cupboard with shelves for books. Doors are often of glass and sometimes fitted with grilles.
BidetA sanitary fixture for cleansing the genitourinary area of the body.
BiedermeierThe term used to describe the Empire style as interpreted and built by the craftsmen of northern Europe.
Bifold DoorA door with vertical double panels that folds back against itself; frequently used for closet doors.
Bifurcated StairsThis type of stair is provided in modern public buildings. In this type of stairs , the flights are so arranged there is a wide flight at the start which is sub
Bills Of LadingThe form that the supplier provides to the truck driver to show what is being shipped and who has title to the goods.
Bi-LoftA registered trademark of Monsanto for acrylic.
BiotechnologyThe aspect of technology concerned with the application of biological and engineering data to synthetic products and environments. Also called ergonomics.
Bird's-EyeA marking of small spots often found in the wood from sugar maple trees. Highly prized throughout furniture history.
Bishop Sleeve CurtainsDrapery lengths pulled into a bloused, poufed effect.
Bishop's SleeveA drapery treatment with side panels of lightweight fabric tied back slightly above the midpoint to form a billowing drape above and a flowing effect below. Find window treatments and curtains.
Bistro TableTerm conventionally refers to a round table about 40" in height designed for small spaces and intimate dining. It is common for people to also refer to bistro tables as pub tables. Find a pub table.
Bisymmetrical BalanceAlso called formal or passive balance, the arrangement of like parts or objects in mirror image on each side of a central point.
BlanketA large piece of woven material used as a covering for warmth, especially on a bed.
Blanket ChestA low box-like chest for storing blankets often called a hope chest. Used during Colonial times for storage and as a bench. Find a cedar blanket chest or hope chest.
BleachingUsing chemicals, such as bleach, to dramatically lighten or to remove color in a wood.
BleedColor penetrates through another coat of paint.
BlindsRigid or soft window coverings, oriented either horizontally or vertically, that obscure light, provide privacy, and can be raised, lowered, or adjusted to different levels.
Block FootA square foot at the base of a straight leg.
Block FrontAn American furniture form of the 1700's, used primarily in chests. The front is divided into three vertical segments consisting of a concave panel in the center and convex panels on each side.
Block PrintA two-dimensional art form printed from a flat wooden or linoleum block on which the background has been carved away, leaving a raised design pattern.
Block PrintingThe oldest form of printing known to man. Motifs are obtained by the use of wooden, linoleum or copper blocks.
Blocking CourseIt is a course of stone masonary provided immediately above the cornice to check the tendency of the cornice to overturn and incidentally it adds to its appearance.
BlowingThis is commonly known as blistering of plaster. This consists the formation of small patches of plaster swelling out beyond the plastered surface.
Blue CA registered trademark of Monsanto for polyester.
BlueprintsFloor plans printed in blue ink and used for construction plans.
Board And BattenVertical wooden siding made of parallel boards with narrow strips of wood (battens) to cover the cracks.
Board-And-BattenA form of vertical siding composed of boards laid side by side, with the resulting joints covered by narrow strips of wood, or battens.
BobecheA glass ring placed at the base of a candle to gather wax or dangle crystals. Find candle accessories.
Body ImpressionsThe "normal compression" of upholstery layers as they lose resilience over time. Often mistaken for sagging on mattresses, sofas and other upholstered furniture. Find a new mattress set.
BoiserieCarved panels used on French pieces from the 17th Century.
BolectionA rounded, projecting molding.
BolsterA long pillow or cushion usually placed on a chair,sofa, or bed.
BombeTraditionally a low baroque style chest with bulging convex sides originated in France. Term can also apply to some commodes, bureaus and armoires. Find living room furniture.
BondIt is a term applied to the over-lapping of bricks or stones in a wall in alternate courses , to bind the whole wall together.
Bonded (Rebonded) FoamCarpet underlay (padding) of chopped foam and filler materials bonded together by heat, pressure, and some adhesives.
Bonded GlassGlass pieces that have been adhered together by glue, resin, or cement.
Bonheur-Du-JourA small French writing table that usually features tall legs; sometimes fitted to hold toilet accessories and miscellaneous items.
Bonnell CoilAn hourglass-shaped mattress coil that's cylindrical at the top and bottom and tapered in the center. Mostly used in promotional and lower-priced bedding today. Find a new mattress set.
Bonnet RoofA hipped roof with two pitches. The top is steeply pitched and the bottom, which covers a porch, is low pitched; used on houses of French influence.
Bonnet TopA hooded top usually found on secretaries, china cabinets, bookcases and curios.
BonsaiThe art of dwarfing trees or plants by growing and training them in containers.
Book MatchA look achieved when alternating pieces of veneer are placed so that adjacent edges meet. The name comes from the final appearance, which resembles the pages of an open book. This is one of the most common veneer methods.
Book MatchingTwo adjacent sheets of veneer that are opened like a book and glued side by side to produce a symmetrical pattern.
BookcaseA piece of furniture with shelves that is normally used in an office or study for storing books. Find a bookcase.
BoraxBorax really isn't a period of furniture as it is a term that refers to lower priced, mass produced furniture from the 1920's to current day. Upholstered pieces are characterized by a large overstuffed design and usually have wood trim. Case pieces are often decorated with veneer panels and plastic moldings. A popular design of Borax furniture is a "waterfall" front.
BorderA strip of companion wall covering used to trim and accent. Packaged in five-yard spools.
Border RodA heavy wire that's normally placed around the perimeter (top and bottom) of a mattress and/or box spring. The border wire is attached to the outermost coils to provide the shape and form for the mattress set.
BossAn oval or round ornament applied to a surface. Term also applies to works in relief.
Boston RockerA large wooden rocker with a spindle back and wide top rail, which is often painted or stenciled. Originated in America in the 1800's. Find a rocking chair.
Boucle'sKnitted or woven fabric with characteristic looped or knotted surface that often resembles a spongy effect. Term also applies to a variety of looped, curled, or slubbed yarns. In French, "boucle" means "buckled" or  "ringed".
Boudoir PillowA small or baby size decorative pillow, usually measuring about 12" x 16". Find a decorative throw pillow.
BoulleA designer of the Louis the XIV period who was famous for his inlays of metal and tortoise shell. "Boullework" can be used as a descriptive phrase.
Bow WindowA curved projecting window (in the shape of a bow).
BowbackA popular type of Windsor chair, also the style of a back such as a bow back rocker. Originally popular in America during the 18th Century. Find a dining room chair.
BowfrontA rounded curve on the front of a piece of wood furniture to appear convex.
Box BurnsFurniture damage caused when the shipping carton rubs against the fabric or frame materials.
Box PleatA double pleat, underneath which the edges fold toward each other.
Box Pleat (Or Boxpleat)A symmetrical skirt pleat made by folding the fabric to the back of each side of the pleat to create a dentil pattern.
Box-SpringA foundation that's designed to support an innerspring mattress. Find a mattress or box-spring set.
Boys And CrownsA very old term for a type of carved ornamentation used on the cresting of chairs, daybeds, etc.
BracketSupporting element found below an eave.
Bracket FootA low foot running both ways from the corner of wood furniture to form a right angle.
Bracket LightingA light placed on the wall behind a bracket board that directs light upward and downward.
BraganzaAn inscrolled or knurled foot, also commonly called a Spanish foot.
Braided RugsStrips of fabric braided, then sewn together in ovals or circles. Originated in Colonial New England.
BrainstormingGeneration of ideas without stopping to judge their quality.
BrassAn alloy of copper and zinc. Brass is yellow in color, and though harder than either of its constituents, it is appropriately malleable for jewelry making.
Break FrontA china cabinet or bookcase that's divided vertically into three segments with the middle segment projecting forward. Find a china cabinet or bookcase.
BreakfrontA case piece whose front plane is broken with receding ot advancing sections. Also, the projecting section of the facade on Late Georgian houses that is topped with a pediment.
BreastThe front of the fireplace and chimneypiece.
Breast WallsThey are stone walls provided to protect the slopes of cutting in natural ground from the action of weather.
BrecciaA clastic sedimentary rock with angular fragments.
Breuer, Marcel (1902-81)Important designer/architect associated with the Bauhaus and known for the design of several classic chairs.
Brewster ChairAn American Colonial style chair with large turned posts and spindles. Named for Governor Brewster of Massachusetts.
BrickClay and other additives formed into rectangles and dried in the sun or fired in a kiln oven; used for walls and floors.
Brick MasonryThese walls are also provided to support earth , loose stone , coal etc. The wall acts as one mass to resist the thrust from the backing and is much stronger than dry stone masonry wall.
BrickmouldExterior wood moulding to cover the gap between a door or window and its frame.
BrilliantsSeveral pinpoints of light that produce a glittering effect.
BroadclothDense cotton fabric with a smooth, semi-gloss finish.
BroadloomA wide loom for weaving carpeting that is 54 inches v.,de or more.
Broadloom CarpetWoven or tufted carpet typically twelve feet wide.
BrocadeA heavy textile with a raised design resembling embroidery. Usually made of silk, rayon, nylon, or polyester.
Broken PedimentAn ornamental crest running across the top of a tall piece such as a highboy or chest. The pediment is interrupted or broken by an opening that highlights a carved finial such as an urn or other shape.
BronzeHabitually, an alloy of copper and tin generally used in casting. The term is often applied to brown-colored brasses.
Brush PaintingApplication of paint with a hand-held brush. Ideal for small areas and detail work.
Brushed FinishA lustrous (but not shiny) finish achieved by brushing a series of uniform scratches into metal.
Bubble PlanningThe first step of diagramming where bubbles represent zones and are placed in proximity relationships.
BudgetingThe facet of a design project that dictates the amount of money to be spent on various aspects of the job.\
BuffetSee sideboard.
Buffet (Or Sideboard)A sideboard without a hutch or storage cabinet on top. The French definition of the word is a small sideboard, a place to keep dishes. Find a buffet or sideboard.
Buffet-Style DiningWhere guests serve themselves a meal from a table or sideboard (balancing the plate on the lap may be implied).
Building InspectorAn official whose job is to inspect new or remodeling construction for structural soundness and safety features.
Building LineThe line upto, which the plinth of a building adjoining a street or extension of a street or on a future may lawfully extend.
Building SystemsComponents of a building that are permanent. These include HVAC, electrical and lighting systems, and plumbing.
Built-InAny element, such as a bookcase or cabinetry, that is built into a wall or an existing frame.
BulbMore accurately the lamp bulb or lamp, it is the glass container that houses the filament of incandescent lighting and in fluorescent lighting contains phosphorus and gas.
Bulking Of SandWhen dry sand comes in contact with moisture, thin film is formed around the particles , which causes them to get apart from each other. This result in increasing the volume of sand. This phenomenon is known as bulking of sand.
Bullion FringeCorded fringe that's twisted into a rope or braid. Primarily used on the base of upholstered furniture, window treatments, accent pillows and lamp shades. Also called bullion trim.
BullnoseA 180-degree rounded wooden edge on the starting step (also on a table or cabinet top).
Bump OutLiving space created by cantilevering the floor and ceiling joists and extending the exterior wall of a room.
Bun FootA flattened ball or bun shaped foot with a slender ankle above, normally used on a chest or seating piece. Very popular during the William and Mary period.
Bungalow StyleAn architectural style of a small house or cottage usually having a single story and sometimes an additional attic story. Most commonly associated with Victorian and Craftsman period bungalow homes and decor.
Bunk BedTwo beds that are joined together so that one is placed above the other. Find kid's furniture.
BunkieCommonly refers to a twin-size mattress used on bunk beds.
Bunkie BoardA platform type of base or a board usually covered with fabric. Used to support a bunkie mattress on a bunk bed.
BureauA dresser used to store clothing also a piece of furniture with drawers used as a desk. Bureau's normally feature either a fall-front, which slopes at 45 degrees, a tambour front or a cylinder front. Find bedroom furniture.
BurjarA large upholstered arm chair style that was made by Thomas Chippendale.
BurlA dome-shaped growth on the trunk of a tree. Intricately patterned burl wood is often used by wood turners and furniture makers.
Burl VeneerMade from scarlike wood growth or from root wood that imparts a complex, swirling grain pattern to the veneer.
Business Accounting SoftwareEnables computers to keep accounting records.
Butcher BlockA surface made from thick cubes or strips of hardwood used for cutting or chopping food items.
Butler's Tray TableA tray with four flip-up handholds that can be removed from the table legs on which it stands. When the sides are down an oval tabletop is created. Find coffee and cocktail tables.
Butt HingesThis type of hinge is most commonly used for fixing door or window shutters to the frame. The sizes of hinges vary from 50mm long x 37mm wide to 125mm long x 75mm wide.
Butt JointThe junction of the ends of two pieces of wood such as on a sill.
Butterfly TableA small drop-leaf table whose leaves are supported by a swinging support resembling a butterfly wing on a rudder. Find dining room and kitchen tables.
Button TuftedButtons that are fabric covered and sewn through the upholstery surface and tied down. The placement of the buttons and their resulting folds produce geometric patterns.
ButtressIt is similar to a pier built on the exterior of a wall and properly binded to it. Buttresses are placed at intervals along wall to make it stable for resisting outward.
Buttressed ChimneyIn Medieval construction, a stepped chimney built in the shape of two buttresses placed back to back. buyer One who selects lines or companies whose furnishings are sold in furniture and department stores.
ByobuSmall-scaled decorative folding Japanese screens.
Byzantine ChairA three cornered chair originated in the Orient and later used in Italy.
Byzantium (A.D. 330-1453)The eastern capital of the classical Roman Empire known for its colorful tile mosaics.
C LampA cone-shaped lamp or light bulb.
C.O.M.Customer's own material?purchased by the customer from someone other than the furniture manufacturer for upholstery on a selected piece.
CabinA room constructed with non-load bearing partitions with adequate provision of light and ventilation.
CabinetryFine finish woodwork, as opposed to rough carpentry.
CabinetworkSee cabinetry.
CableA molding design that resembles inter-twined rope.
Cable System ConstructionA method of nonresidential building where a canopy is held in place with steel cables hung from a central column.
CabochonA gem shaped ornament of convex, hemispherical form.
CabrioleA double-curve or reverse S-shaped furniture leg that leads down to an elaborate foot (usually a ball-and-claw type).
Cabriole LegA decorative S-shaped table or chair leg that curves outward at the knee then tapers at the ankle. Commonly found on Queen Anne, Chippendale and other 18th Century pieces. Often seen with ball and claw feet.
CadSee computer-aided design.
CadonA registered trademark of Monsanto for nylon.
Café CurtainA curtain that covers only the bottom half of a window and hangs from a wire or thin curtain rod. Find curtains.
Cafe CurtainsCurtains that cover the bottom half of a window.
CaissonA caisson may be defined as a watertight structure made up of wood , steel or reinforced concrete , constructed in connection with excavation for foundation of bridges , piers.
CalenderingA finishing process of ironing under heat with a large cylinder roller. The roller may have raised patterns to imprint designs, and the fabric may also be glazed with a resin, then calendered to produce a high sheen or other special finishes.
CalicoCotton or cotton-blend fabric printed with small, colorful patterns.
California KingA bed size that measures 74"x86". This style is popular on the West coast of the United States. The additional size comes in the length creating a rectangular shape rather than the square shape of a standard king (Eastern King). Find a mattress set.
California King-Sized BedOne of the standard sizes for North American mattress manufacturers. 72" wide by 84" long (the depth varies greatly depending on the style and type of cushioning). Slightly narrower and longer than a typical King-sized bed.
Cambrick (Or Dust Cover)A non-woven cloth that covers the bottom of an upholstered piece of furniture such as a sofa or box spring. Also commonly called a "dust cover".
CameThe lead strips used to secure the pieces of glass in leaded or stained glass windows.
Camel HairWool-like underhair of the camel that is lustrous and extremely soft. Because it is expensive, often used in blends with wool for coats, blankets and oriental rugs. Natural colors range from light tan to brownish black. Classified as wool under the Wool Products Labeling Act.
CamelbackA curved sofa back characterized by a large central hump. This design was often used by Chippendale and Hepplewhite. Find a sofa.
Camelback SofaA type of sofa with a curved back, typically seen in more traditional styles (Queen Anne, Chippendale, Federal, etc.).
Camel-Back SofaA sofa with a serpentine back that rises to a hump in the center.
Campaign FurniturePortable furniture that's folding or collapsible, or made of flat components that can be assembled or disassembled. Initiated for military use and usually features handles, it is most associated with colonialism.
CanapeA type of French settee with padded back and seat, open arms, and a decorated frame. Most commonly associated with Louis the XV design.
Candle FollowerA device that fits onto the top of a candle. As the wax melts the follower keeps the wax from dripping down the side of the candle. Find a candle accessory.
CandlepowerIs the unit of luminous intensity approximately equal to the horizontal light output from an ordinary wax candle.
Candlepower (Cp)The intensity of light measured at a lamp. This term is generally used for task and ac-cent lighting.
CaneSplit rattan, often used to cover chair seats and backs.
Cane ChairThese chairs were first made in England and were very popular since they were cheap, light and durable. First used in America in the late 1600's.
CanisterA luminaire shaped like a can that contains a lamp at the top or the bottom.
CanopyA fabric covering attached to a frame at the top of bedposts.
Canopy BedA bed supported by four tall posts with a cross members joining the posts that may be used for a supporting a fabric canopy cover, swags, curtains, etc. Find bedroom furniture.
CantedSlopping at an angle, such as a sofa or chair back.
CanterburyA portable magazine rack named after the Bishop of England.
CantileverA structural beam supported on one end. A cantilever can be used to support a small addition.
CantonniereA bed hanging used in 16th Century France. It hung outside of the bed curtains to prevent drafts.
CantreseA registered trademark of DuPont for nylon.
CapitalIn making of the columns, at their head the columns are enlarged so as to form a suitable diameter of a particular span. This flared up portion of column head is called capital.
CappingA turned ornamentation used to make furniture pieces more decorative.
CaprolanA registered trademark of Allied Chemical for nylon and polyester.
Captain's ChairA Windsor chair with a lower, rounded spindle back. Find a dining chair.
CarcaseThe basic structure of a piece of furniture; often forms the foundation for veneering.
Card TableA folding table that originated in England during the late 1600's to accommodate the nobility's passion for gambling.
Carlton TableAn 18th Century writing table that featured an adjustable top.
CaroleanRestoration and Late Jacobean furniture is also known as Carolean furniture. Carolean furniture includes Charles the second through James the second reign. This period of furniture is a result of Cromwellian severity in shape and style. Carolean furniture is appealing because of its beautifully carved spiral turned legs and stretchers. Chairs, tables, and beds usually have scroll shaped feet. Seats are often made of cane. Upholstery fabrics are luxurious tapestries. The most common wood used was walnut. Some pieces were made of oak.
Carousel ShelvesShelves that attach to the backs of tewo right-angled doors and rotate 270 degrees.
Carpenter's GothicThe wooden, board-and-batten version of the Gothic Revival style.
CartonnierA piece of furniture that took on many various forms. It usually stood at the side of a writing table to hold papers.
CartoucheAn ornamental shield or decoration usually placed above a door opening or fireplace mantel, often containing the name of a king, queen, or deity. Term also applies to a sculpture or back ornament in the form of an unrolled scroll.
Carved RugA rug with a three-dimensional design/pattern. Find an area rug.
Carver ChairA modern term for a 17th Century "Dutch" type of arm chair that featured turned posts and spindles.
CaryatidA top member of a pedestal or leg used for support in the form of a conventionalized human figure.
CascadesZigzag-shaped panels of fabric that usually frame swags or festoons.
Case GoodsFurniture that is used for storage, such as cabinets, dressers, and desks.
Cased GlassClear glass encased in a layer of colored glass.
CasegoodsA piece of furniture used for storage, including cabi-nets, dressers, and desks.
Case-GoodsFurniture made of hard materials such as wood, metal, glass, or plastic. Examples of case-goods are chests, tables, dressers, bookshelves, and cabinets.
Casegoods (Or Case Furniture)Non-upholstery pieces such as tables, hutches, dressers and chests, which have functional or storage capabilities.
Casein (Or Buttermilk)A traditional paint made by blending earth colored pigments with buttermilk (or skimmed milk) and a small amount of lime. Casein dries to a flat, smooth finish.
Casein PaintsCasein is a protein substance extracted from milk curd, which is mixed up with a base to form the paint, which is usually available in the powder or pasty form.
CasementA cloth drapery made of an open weave material that's normally somewhat opaque. Find curtains.
Casement DraperiesA strongly textural-looking fabric in a woven or knitted construction. Screens light, cuts down on glare, and provides daytime privacy.
Casement WindowA tall, narrow window that opens by swinging outward from the side.
CashmereFine downy undercoat hair of the cashmere goat from Tibet, the Kashmir province north of India, Iran, Iraq, and southwest China.
CasingThe type of molding found around openings such as windows or doors. Casing hides the seam between the structure and the adjoining wall.
CassapancaA wooden bench with a built-in chest under the seat.
CassoneItalian chest, often highly decorated with carving and inlay.
Cast IronIron cast in a mold.
Cast Iron FurnitureIron furnishings made with molds. Very popular since the 1800's for many items including garden furniture, plant stands and cast iron beds.
CastersRound wheels attached by a swivel to furniture pieces for mobility. Commonly used on dining and office chairs.
CastingThe process of pouring molten metal or glass, clay slip, etc. into a hollow mold to harden. Some casting processes permit more than one reproduction.
Cast-In-Situ PilesThe piles, which are cast in position inside the ground, are called the cast-in-situ piles.
CathedraThe bishop's chair from which the term cathedral is derived.
Cathedral CeilingA high, open, gabled ceiling
Cathedral WindowA pointed window set in the gable of a room with an open ceiling.
Caucasian Or Turkish RugsOriental rugs of a coarser weave than Persians, in geometric patterns and often vivid colors.
CaulkTo fill a joint with resilient mastic.
CauseuseA small settee that was very popular in early French furniture.
Cavity WallThis consists of two walls so they form a cavity in between. The outer wall is half brick width and the inner wall is sufficiently thick.
Ceiling FanBoth decorative and functional fans, which are installed on the ceiling to circulate air in a room. Find a ceiling fan.
CeladonFrench name for a green, gray-green, blue-green, or gray glaze produced with a small percentage of iron as the colorant.
CelaneseA registered trademark of Celanese for acetate.
CelapermA registered trademark of Celanese for acetate.
CellaLiterally a cell. The interior space of a Roman temple.
CellaretA case on legs or a stand for wine bottles.
Cellulose PaintsThis paint is made from celluloid sheets and amyl-acetate substitutes.
Cellulosic FibersA classification of natural fibers that come from plants and are made up of cellulose, cotton and linen being the most commonly used. Also a classification of man-made fibers that begin with cellulose., such as rayon and acetate.
CementCement in broadest term means any substance that acts as a binding agent for materials. Cement as applied to construction and engineering is produced by calcining at high temperature an intimate mixture of calcareous , siliceous and aluminous substances and crushing the resulting clinkers to a fine powder.
Center DrawA pair of draperies which open and close at a window's mid point. Find draperies and curtains.
Center GlideA center track (glide) that guides a drawer.
Center RailA support beam that runs head to toe down the middle of a mattress foundation or bed frame for added support.
CenterlineThe bisecting line through the center of an object, such as a sink.
CenterpieceAn ornament used to occupy the center of a dining table. Find home accessories.
Central Air-ConditioningCool or temperate air controlled from a central unit and distributed through ducts and vents.
Central And South American RugsFolk rugs from natives of Central and South American countries.
Central Vacuum SystemA vacuum located in one unit with plumbed pipe and outlets where the hose is attached. The wall plate covering the outlet activates the system when it is lifted.
Ceramic TileWhite clays fired to a point of vitrification. It conies in many sizes, shapes, colors, and patterns; a strong, hard material for walls, floors, and ceilings.
Ceramic TilesGlazed clay tiles, which stand up to large amounts of wear and tear very well.

The art and science of forming objects from earth materials containing or combined with silica; the objects are then heated to at least 1300°F to harden.

CertosinaAn ivory inlay found on some fine Italian antique furniture.
Cerusea ceruse finish usually pertains to wood. It is when a white pigment is rubbed into a wood to create a streaking of white in the grains.
CfmAn abbreviation that refers to cubic feet of air that is moved per minute by an exhaust fan.
Chair And A HalfAn upholstered seating piece that's larger than a armchair, but not as large as a loveseat. Find a living room chair.
Chair RailA molding that normally falls at a height of three to four feet and bands an entire room. Originally incorporated for wall protection, chair rails are now used primarily for decoration, to cap wainscoting, or as a divider between different wall treatments.
Chaise LongueA long, low upholstered couch in the shape of a chair that is long enough to support the legs. Often mistakenly referred to
as a chaise lounge so much so that the latter term has come to be commonly accepted as well.
Chaise LoungeAn upholstered armchair with the back and seat lengthened for reclining. Styles ranges from formal to contemporary. Also referred to by some as a French long chair. Find a chaise lounge chair.
ChajjaA sloping or horizontal structural overhang usually provided over openings on external walls for protection from sun and rain.
ChambrayA popular variety of cotton fabric that combines colored warp and white filling yarns in a plain weave.
ChamferA corner or edge that is cut at an angle or beveled.
ChamferingIt consists in taking off the edges of wooden members. Thus a chamfered member has a sloping or bevelled edge.
ChandelierA ceiling-mounted lighting fixture consisting of two or more arms bearing lights. Styles can range from small and simple to extremely large and ornate. Find a chandelier.
Channel BackA sofa or chair with a back design of vertical sections of cushioning in a shell-like pattern. Find a sofa.
Channel QuiltStitching in lines that run parallel to the length or width of a fabric.
ChannelingA grooved or creased effect in wood.
Charles Of LondonA style of sofa or chair with a low rolled arm. Find living room furniture.
ChasedA metal surface that's ornamented by embossing, engraving or carving.
ChasingA technique in which steel punches are used to decorate and/or texture of metal surface.
CheckA lengthwise separation of a wood board that extends across the annual growth rings.
ChecksSplits or cracks in wood, which are ordinarily caused by seasoning. A common characteristic of genuine cherry wood pieces.
Chemical FinishesSee standard finishes.
ChenilleA type of fabric featuring a plush, variegated texture and often exhibiting an iridescent appearance.
ChesserA combination of a dresser and a chest. Chessers are narrower than a dresser and shorter than a chest, and normally have a small tilting mirror. Find bedroom furniture.
ChestA tall, narrow piece featuring a series of drawers for storing clothing. Find a chest of drawers.
Chest On ChestA tall chest with a larger chest of drawers that supports a slightly smaller chest. Find a chest of drawers.
ChesterfieldA sofa style with deep button tufting and large rolled arms that are the same height as the back. Term is still common in Canada and England. Find a sofa.
Cheval MirrorA freestanding mirror swung in a vertical frame. Also called a dressing mirror or cheval glass. Find a cheval mirror.
Chevreul, M.E. (1786-1889)French chemist who was head of dyestuffs at Gobelin Tapestry Works near Paris. Chevreul researched and published theories that were forerunners to the Standard Color Wheel theory.
ChevronA V-shaped ornamentation inspired by military insignia.
ChiThe life force or essential energy of the universe. Chi can be either auspicious or inauspicious.
ChiffonierA tall and narrow chest of drawers normally used for storing undergarments and lingerie. Term is a French word denoting a lady's work table, derived from chiffons, which means rags. Term can also be used in reference to a lingerie chest or highboy. Find bedroom furniture.
ChifforobeA combination of wardrobe and chest-of-drawers. Find bedroom furniture.
ChimneypieceThe decorative detail that covers the firebox and flue.
ChinaDesignation given by Europeans to porcelain from the Orient.
China Cabinet (Or China Hutch)A cabinet with with, or without, glass fronts to store and display china, the sides may or may not feature glass. Seldom found in America before the late 1700's. Find a china cabinet.
China PaintA low-temperature overglaze fired onto previously glazed and fired ceramic.
ChineseChinese art and furniture design heavily influenced European furniture periods, particularly during the 1500's through the 1800's. Styles especially influenced include Chippendale, Regency, and Louis the XV styles. All Chinese furniture is lacquered and usually features relief carving for decoration. Most pieces are small and simple and rely on decorative details for their beauty. Most common woods on authentic pieces were teak, sandalwood, and bamboo. Chinese rugs and wallpaper are famous throughout the world.
Chinese RugsOriental rugs woven in Chinese traditional or contemporary patterns in a deep, sculptured pattern.
ChinkingThe weatherproofing material placed between logs in a log home.
ChinoiserieA decoration inspired by Chinese art, which can be painted or lacquered on furniture or used as themes on wallpaper, fabric, etc.
ChintzA printed cotton fabric that is often "shiny" or glazed.
ChipboardSee particleboard.
ChippendaleA design that's more rectangular and heavier than Queen Anne pieces. Chippendale design features include cabriole legs, ball and claw feet, and highboys with broken pediment tops.
Chippendale, Thomas 11 (1718-99)An important English cabinetmaker known for the designs published in his book, The Gentleman and Cabinet-Maker's Director.
ChoirThe section of the church where the choir sings.
ChromaThe relative brightness or intensity of a particular hue or color. Low chroma is dull; high chroma is bright. Chroma, also called intensity, is a designation of the Munsell color system.
ChromiumA shiny silver metal resistant to rust.
ChromspunA registered trademark of Eastman Kodak for acetate.
CinquefoilTerm refers to a any five petaled design.
CircuitA wiring hookup that forms a path through which electrical current may flow.
Circular StairsThese stairs are circular in nature, in this form of stairs, al the steps radiate from a newel post or well hole , in the form of winders. These are generally constructed in R.C.C, cast iron or stone.
CirculationMovement from place to place within an environment.
CissingDropping mineral spirits onto wet spattered paint to make shadows of the spatters.
City Of LondonThe one-square-mile area that encompasses what was once Roman and Medieval London.
ClapboardThin, horizontal, overlapping, exterior wooden siding.
ClassicA work of the highest excellence able to stand the test of time.
Classical Rome (200 S.C.—A.D. 100)The Roman era of political conquest and architectural achievement. Roman design was discovered by the Western world when the excavation of Pompeii began in 1754.
ClasticSediments formed from the breaking up of earlier rocks.
Claw & Ball (Or Ball & Claw)A carved lions or birds claw clutching a sphere, usually at the end of a cabriole leg or pedestal tables base.
ClearanceThe amount of space between two fixtures, the center-lines of two fixtures, or a fixture and an obstacle, such as a wall.
CleavageThe tendency of some rocks to split or break along smooth planes that are more or less parallel.
Clere Story WindowThis type of window is used to achieve better ventilation and cooling effect in the living or main rooms of a building which have ceiling height greater than the surrounding rooms.
Clerestory WindowWindow placed or the top of the wall or in the highest story of the nave or choir of a church.
CloisonnéDecorative objects made by soldering metal strips into a pattern on a metal piece and filling the space between the strips with enamel.
Closed Floor PlansFloor plans with many rooms that are totally private from other rooms, having solid walls and accessed only through a door that may also close.
Closed ShowroomsA design-oriented store for placing orders of merchandise. They deal only with professional interior designers; clients are not allowed to enter.
Closed StairA stairway with walls on both - sides. Also called a housed stair.
Closed-GrainA wood that exhibits narrow, inconspicuous, annual growth rings is considered closed-grain. Examples are cherry and maple.
CloserIt is a portion of a brick cut in such a manner that its one long face remains uncut.
Club ChairAn upholstered chair with arms, normally made to match a sofa and covered in the same material. Find a living room chair.
Club FootA turned foot resembling a club; often found at the end of a cabriole leg.
Club SofaA fully upholstered piece of furniture with arms that are lower than its back. Find a sofa.
Coated Fabric Wall CoveringsFabric layered with vinyl to become wall coverings.
CobblestoneLarge rounded stones such as river cobbles set into concrete and used mainly as nonresilient hard wall materials.
CockbeadingBead molding applied to the edges of drawers.
Cocktail Table (Or Coffee Table)A long and low table normally positioned in front of a sofa, which provides a surface for serving. Find a coffee table.
CodeA locally or nationally enforced mandate regarding struc-tural design, materials, plumbing, or electrical systems that state what you can or cannot do when you build or remodel.
CofferA multi-functional traveling chest with handles and a domed lid but without feet, usually made of oak. Term can also refer to a chest or box covered in leather or some other material and banded with metalwork.
CofferdamA cofferdam may be defined as a temporary structure constructed in a river or a lake or any other water
Coffered CeilingA ceiling formed with recessed boxes or coffers.
Cogged JointThis joint is commonly provided between wall plate and the tie beam of wooden truss where it is essential to utilise the entire depth of the wall plate for bearing the tie
Coil CountThe specific number of coils in a mattress or box spring unit. The standard count is based on the coils within a full size piece. A high coil count was once touted to indicate better quality, however this term is no longer applicable to many of today's better mattress sets. Find a new mattress.
Coil SpringA cylindrically shaped spring used for upholstery cushioning.
Coil SpringsWire coils used in more expensive upholstered seating pieces to give a desired resiliency and firmness to the seat and back.
Cold Air ReturnsDucts used in forced-air heating systems to return cooled air to the heat source for warming.
Cold Cathode LightingThe term for all colors of neon lighting.
Collar RoofWith excessive loading conditions or increased spans the rafter of the couple closed roof tends to bend in the middle. This tendency is overcome by fixing the tie near the middle of the rafters. The truss then formed is called collar roof.
CollectorsUnits to capture the sun's energy or heat for active and passive solar heating.
ColonialAmerican furniture from the 1700's through the Revolutionary era. The formal styles are usually mahogany or cherry while plainer furniture was done in pine, oak, and maple. Queen Anne and Chippendale designs are often included in this category.
Colonial America (1640-1770)The period prior to the Revolutionary War that included Medieval and Early and Late Georgian interiors.
Colonial RevivalReproductions of classic American styles from the 1700's, although not always accurate in detail. Revival pieces were popular from the late 1800's through the early 1900's. Also known as just "Revival".
ColonnadeA range of columns connected by a horizontal entablature or cornice at the top.
ColorAn element of design, color is pigment in paint or part of the visible spectrum of light that enables us to see hues. It incorporates the study of hue, value, and intensity as well as color schemes, color application, and color psychology.
Color Group MoodsGroups of color that produce emotional response, such as light and bright colors producing feelings of spontaneity and happiness.
Color HarmonyThe selection and arrangement of colors to be pleasing to the eye and to the senses.
Color IntensityStrength of a color.
Color Rendition Index (Cri)Measures the way a light source renders color. The higher the number, the more the color resembles how it appears in sunlight.
Color SchemeColor combinations for the interiors of rooms and homes in general.
Color TransferThe process of applying a color from one material onto another by the means of moisture or heat. The term can also refer to the accidental seepage of color from one material to another.
Color WashingApplying a coat of thinned, sometimes translucent, paint over a white or colored ground.
Color WayA term used in interior design to describe a color combination.
Color WheelA diagram, usually circular, showing the range and relationships of pigment and dye colors.
ColorayA registered trademark of Courtaulds for viscose rayon.
Colored Incandescentlighting Accomplished with colored! glass lamps or by colored screens or filters placed over a white light.
ColorfastA term used to describe fabrics of sufficient color retention so that no noticeable change in shade takes place during the normal life of the fabric.
ColoringA general term for the dyeing and printing of textiles.
ColorspunA registered trademark of American Viscose for viscose rayon.
ColorwashingA decorative painting technique where a thin glaze (or water-based wash) is applied over the base coat of paint to create an effect of subtle layers of color.
Colour WashingColour wash is prepared by adding mineral colours (which are not affected by lime ) of desired shade to the prepared white
ColumnA column may be defined as an isolated vertical load bearing member the width of which is neither less than the thickness nor more than four times its thickness.
Columnar JointingIn igneous rocks, a regular six-sided form of jointing that produces regularly shaped pillars or columns.
Com (Customer’S Own Material)When a designer uses a fabric on a special-ordered upholstered furniture item other than of the fabrics available from the furniture manufactured.

Furniture industry term for "Customer's own material" or "Customer's own leather". Typically expressed in square yards for fabric (COM) and in square feet for leather (COL). Figure references the amount of material required for custom fabric or leather coverings.

Comb BackA Windsor chair having an extension of the back above the arm rail that consists of five or more spindles and a curved top rail resembling a comb. Find a dining room chair.
CombinationWooden furniture construction with more than one type of wood in the exposed parts of the piece.
Combination Felt PaddingCarpet underlay felt pad of some animal hair and some synthetic fiber.
Combination Floor PlansA floor plan with areas that are open and other rooms that are closed.
Combination WeaveA fabric employing more than one type of weave; for example, plain and twill weaves seen side by side in a fabric.
Combined FootingA combined footing is so proportioned that the centre of gravity of the supporting area is in line with the centre of gravity of the two column loads.
CombingA painting effect in which a comb (or comb like tool) is dragged across the paint or glaze to create a series of lines.
Combustion LightingCandlelight and firelight.
Comfort LayersThe layers of material in a mattress or upholstered seating that provide the comfortable surface feel.
ComforterComforters cover the mattress, but not the box spring. Since the top and bottom fabrics of a comforter are quilted together with a filling material in between, they are usually fluffier and thicker than a bedspread or coverlet. Comforters are usually used with a dust ruffle to cover the box spring. Comforters are usually too short to cover the bed pillows, therefore most people use shams. Find a comforter.
CommodeA stand or cupboard, traditionally used for storing chamber pots. Often used as a side table or nightstand.
Common RaftersThese are inclines wooden members laid from the ridge to the eaves. Cleats - These are short sections of wood or steel , nailed , screwed or bolted to the rafters of the truss for supporting purlins.
Commonwealth (Or Puritan)Commonwealth furniture is also known as Puritan, Cromwellian and Middle Jacobean. Commonwealth furniture was a design devoid of ornate style. This style was characterized as straight and severe. Pieces were square and rectangle. Sturdy underbracing was used on chairs. Settees had straight backs and low seats. Upholstery pieces had dull or dismal fabrics. Oak was the favored wood. Most popular during the mid to late 1600's.
Communication SystemsIntercom, computer network, and telephone. systems that connect people within the building or beyond the building.
Compact Fluorescent (Cf) LampsSmall, fluorescent lamps that consume one-fifth of the power and can last up to thirteen times longer than incandescent. May connect to an incandescent fixture.
Compartmental BathroomA bathroom in which the separate functions are housed in small rooms that open to each other.
Complementary ColorsHues directly opposite each other on the color wheel. As the strongest contrasts, complements tend to intensify each other.
CompositeOne of the architectural orders. The composite column was the result of combining both the Ionic and Corinthian columns.
Composite MasonryWalls constructed from two or more building materials are termed as composite walls.
Composite Roof TrussesTrusses built with the combination of wood and steel are termed as composite trusses.
Compounded FabricsSee layered fabrics.
Computer DeskA desk that's specifically designed to accommodate a personal computer. Find a computer desk.
Computer HardwareThe components of a computer system
Computer NetworkConnective cables that allow computer terminals within an office or design firm to access the same information.
Computer ProgramsThe software, or disks, that operate the computer hardware. Programs are instructions, information, and data bases that allow the machine to operate specific functions. These include graphics, CAD, word processing, and so on.
Computer TerminalA keyboard and monitor that are connected to a mainframe. Also, a personal computer that can be connected to other computer terminals via a computer network system.
Computer-Aided Design (And Drafting) Cad (Cadd)Computer software that enables the designer to draw, draft, arrange furnishing components, and compose simulated perspectives of a proposed interior space.
ConceptAn idea for the solution to a problem.
Conceptual DrawingsDrawings that show the concept or idea for a design.
ConcreteA mixture of sand, water, and portland cement that dries to a hard material; used for floors and walls, footings, foundations, and exterior flotwork.
CondominiumAn individually owned home in a complex. The owner pays a monthly or yearly charge to maintain common landscaping and recreation and/or fitness facilities.
ConglomerateA rock composed of rounded fragments, anything from a few millimeters to several centimeters in diameter.
ConiferA softwood tree type, with needles and cones rather than flat, broad leaves.
Connecticut ChestA low chest on legs that normally contains a double set of drawers.
ConnectorsThese are the metallic members used for connecting timber pieces in such a way that transmission of stress from one member to another is adequately ensured.
Console (Or Console Table)A term originally applied to a bracket that supported cornices or shelves and later used to describe tables that were affixed to a wall and supported with legs at the front. Today it describes any type of table used along a wall. Find a console table.
Console TableA long narrow table (usually around 30" high) used for displaying decorative objects, lighting, florals, etc. Often placed in a foyer or behind a sofa.
ContemporaryThe style inherent to the present time. Often confused with modern.
Contemporary StyleA style of decoration or architec-ture that is modern and pertains to what is current.
ContinentalA pillow that's 26" square, which is the traditional European sized pillow.
Continuing EducationSkills, training, and knowledge gleaned by the professional interior designer through seminars and networks sponsored by professional Organizations, institutions, and corporations.
Continuous CoilA mattress design in which each row of coils is made using a single, continuous wire. Find a mattress set.
ContrastThe difference in illumination level between one point and nearby points.
Contrasting WeltWelting or piping at seams that's covered in fabric contrasting or different from the main body fabric. Used on upholstered furniture and fabric accessories such as accent pillows and drapes.
ControlThe monitoring unit or thermostat needed for a furnace or an active solar heating system.
Convection OvenHeated air flows around the food.
Conventional DesignA type of decorative design taken from nature and adapted, stylized, Or conventionalized. The pattern is still recognizable as the nature object (flowers, for example) but is not reproduced in its naturalistic state.
Conventional OvenFood is cooked by radiation.
Conventional Traverse RodsDrapery rods with a cord-and-pulley system for operating pleated draperies.
Conversation PitSeating areas designed and built in as an integral part of the environment. The name pit implies a sunken area, but this type of seating could be designed on a platform or on floor level.
Cool ColorsGreen, blue-green, blue, blue-violet, and violet.
Cool White Deluxe Fluorescent LampsA quality, balanced spectrum lamp whose light does not appear cold and unflattering.
Coordinating Or Companionfabric Decorative fabric printed in the same pattern or in a pattern that coordinates with the wallpaper.
CopeTo cut a section of paneling to fit an adjoining piece.
CopingIt is a covering placed on the exposed top of an external wall. It is essentially provided to prevent the seepage of water through the joints of the topmost couse of wall.
CopperA bright, shiny, reddish brown metal used for cookware, tableware, decorative objects, and building components.
CorbelIt is the extension of one or more courses or brick or stone from the face of a wall.
CordelanA registered trademark of the Japan company for a vinyl/vinyon fiber. Cordura A registered trademark of DuPont
CorduroyA cotton or rayon velvet that's woven with ridges (or cords).
CorinthianThe Corinthian column, featuring acanthus leaves on its capital, is the most ornate of the architectural orders.
Corner Block Or BraceA diagonal brace placed at the corner of a frame structure to provide strength. Commonly found on the inside corners of dressers and chests for example.
Corner CupboardA triangular shaped dining room china cabinet made to fit into a corner. Find a china cabinet.
Corner WindowThis type of window , as the name suggests , is essentially located in the corner of a room. By use of this window it is possible to ensure light and ventilation from two directions at right angles.
CorniceIt is a horizontal molded projection provided near the top of a building or at the junction of a wall and ceiling.
CornucopiaThe horn of plenty, which symbolizes peace and prosperity, used as a design motif.
Corrected Grain LeatherLeather that's buffed to remove unattractive blemishes and embossed to simulate an attractive grain pattern or to add a decorative texture. Find leather furniture.
Correlated Color Temperature (Cct)Compares the apparent warmth or coolness of discontinuous-spectrum light.
Cost Plus Percentage Mark-UpA design fee method that allows the design firm to add a specific percentage to the net cost of the merchandise being purchased by the client.
Cost PriceThe price that the designer must pay for the goods.
Cottage FurnitureA style of casual furniture that's characterized by being painted and/or decorated. Cottage pieces often feature turned legs and very simple lines. The term originated during the Victorian period to refer to mass-produced simplified designs.
CouchA term from the 17th and 18th Century used to refer to a daybed. Not used as a term for a sofa or settee until more recent times.
Counter Flap HingesThis type of hinges has three parts and two centres. Provision of this type of hinge enable the shutters to be folded back to back.
Counter StoolA stool that has a seat height of about 24" to 26", opposed to a bar stool that normally has a seat height of 30". Find a counter stool.
Country StyleA casual style that gained popularity in the 1980's and remains popular today, often featuring nature and nostalgic motifs. The "appearance" of handcrafting is also important. Distressing is commonly seen.
Country-RockThe rock or rocks into which an igneous intrusion is placed.
Couple Close RoofIn a coupled roof, the notches provided at the feet of the rafters prevent them from spreading, but with the time span , they spend and roof will collapse , thus to prevent this , the feet of the rafters are joined by a tie , which by holding them in position , prevents them from spreading and thrusting out of the wall. This is called couple closed roof.
CourseA horizontal layer of bricks or stones is termed a course.
Court CupboardA small cupboard that's used for storing silver, china, or other precious items.
CourtyardA space permanently open to sky , enclosed fully or partially by building and may be at ground level or any other level within or adjacent to a building.
Covered AreaGround area covered by the building immediately above plinth level. It does not include the spaces covered by some projections.
CoverletA bed cover that reaches to the top of the bed and to the bottom of the box spring on three sides.
CovingAngled sides of firebox.
Crackle Glaze (Or Craquelure)A special type of glaze used to create a fine network of cracks.
Cramped JointThe function of cramp which may be of slate or any metal , is to prevent the tendency of the joint to be pulled apart.
CredenceAn early Italian cabinet that was used for carving meat or displaying plates. It was the original forerunner of the sideboard.
Credence TableA type of small table used for storing food before serving; generally a semi-circular table with a hinged top.
CredenzaA large low cabinet, usually 30"-36" high with a flat top used for serving and storage.
Crest Rail (Top Rail)The top horizontal rail of an upholstered piece, which can be very detailed.
CrestingA shaped ornamentation on the top of a structure, as in the cresting of a chair.
Crinoline StretcherAn arched stretcher found on certain Windsor chairs.
Critical Path Method (Cpm)A preparation method that begins by identifying the interrelationships of the tasks to be performed. This study shows the designer, which tasks must be completed before the next or other tasks can be performed, thus establishing the vital path.
CrochetingA fabric, trimming, or lace made by interlocking successive loops or stitches with a hook or needle.
CrockingThe loss of transfer of leather coloring or finish by abrasion.
CroftA small filing cabinet from the 18th Century that had many small drawers and a writing top.
CropTo trim or cut an art piece to fit a frame.
Cross DyeingTwo fibers of different affinities dyed in the same bath; the colors will be accepted differently.
Cross StretcherAn X-shaped stretcher in straight or curved lines. Found on some traditional style tables, chairs and on highboys and lowboys.
CrossingThe area of a cross-shaped church where the nave and transept cross.
CrowdingWhere people are grouped together in tightly restricted areas.
CrownIn arches, it is the highest point of the extrados or it is the highest part of the arch.
Crown LintelSee jack arch lintel.
Crown MoldingA decorative molding used at the juncture of the wall and ceiling; it can be flat or sprung, plain or complex.
CruciformFloor plan in the form or shape of a cross.
CryptAn underground vault, especially in a church, often used for burial.
CrystalA high grade of glass containing lead.
CrystallizedThe stone forms into crystals.
Cubic Feet Or FootageThe width multiplied by the length of a room and then by its height. The volume of space we walk through. Rooms with very high ceilings have greater cubic footage than those with lower ceilings.
CumuloftA registered trademark of Monsanto for nylon.
CupboardA cabinet, box or closet with shelves designed to hold cups, dishes or food.
Cupid's BowTerm used to describe the typical top rail of a Chippendale chair back, which curves up at the ends and dips slightly in the center.
CupolaA small-domed structure rising above a roof.
CureMaintaining the humidity and temperature of freshly poured concrete for a period of time to keep water present so the concrete hydrates or hardens properly.
Curing Of ConcreteIt is the process of keeping the set concrete continuously damo for some days in order to enable the concrete gain more strength.
CurioA rare or curious art object?a curiosity.
Curio (Collectors Cabinet)A case piece featuring glassed in shelves and doors for displaying collectibles. Find a curio cabinet.
Curtain PanelA large piece of fabric designed to cover part or all of a window. Usually hung in pairs. Curtain panels generally come in standard lengths of 84", 96", and 108" and their standard width is usually 45"-50".
Curtain RodsPlain or nontraverse rods of metal or wood.
Curtain Wall ConstructionSee metal or space frame system.
CurtainsLike draperies, curtains use fabric, but they are usually hung with in the window frame and close to the glass.
Curule LegsX-shaped legs used on a portable backless folding chair.
Curved LinesFlowing lines, part of the elements of design. Large curves are smooth and gracious; small curves can give a feeling of activity in the interior.
Curved StaircaseA staircase with a curved radius.
Curved-Back SofaA sofa whose back arches in a smooth, even curve with large, scrolled arms. Find a sofa.
Cushion DrawerA convex drawer below a cornice that runs the full width of a piece of furniture.
CushioningMaterials used to provide comfort in upholstered furniture and bedding. Popular cushioning materials include polyurethane foam, polyester, cotton, latex and wool.
Custom DesignAny design that is planned and executed according to individual specifications?not mass-produced.
Custom Floor PlanOne that is executed by an architect or designer to meet the needs of the space?custom tailored to the design program.
Custom GradeIs the most common grade and still produced a high-quality job.
Cut GlassGlass incised with an abrasive to create decorative patterns.
Cut LengthThe length of unhemmed fabric window treatments.
Cut PileA cut pile is when the ends of the rug pile is cut.
Cut StringIt is a stringer with its upper surface having carriages or houses accurately cut to receive the treads and risers and the lower edge being parallel to the pitch of the stair.
Cyma CurveA distinctive 'S' shaped curve incorporated into Queen Anne furniture.
DacronRegistered Trademark of DuPont for polyester fibers in the form of continuous filament yarns, staple, tow and fiberfill.
DadoThe lower part of an interior wall, which has been treated with decoration.
Dado CapA molding used to finish the top of a dado.
Dado JointA rectangular groove across the width of a board or plank that another piece of wood fits into.Dado Rail
DamaskA heavy reversible fabric featuring a pattern that's distinguished from the background by contrasting luster.
Damp Proof CourseA course consisting of some appropriate water proofing material provided to prevent penetration of dampness or moisture.
DamperThe movable piece in a fireplace that controls the airflow and escape of smoke.
Data-Base CatalogInformation and graphic symbols programmed into a data-base software program. Useful in CAD and in business applications.
Data-Base ProgramsSoftware programs that manage, organize, and retrieve files used for working on documents, graphics, CAD.
DaubA coarse plaster used as infill wall finish in Medieval timber-framed buildings.
DavenportTerm originates from a the last name of a Boston upholster who made overstuffed couches. His couches were so popular people called them Davenports. This word has been replaced with sofa.
DaventryA small chest of drawers with a sloped top for writing.
David Brewster Color TheoryAnother designation for the Standard Color Wheel theory.
DaybedA seating piece that can also serve as a bed. Find a daybed.
De StijlAn early twentieth-century Dutch aesthetic philosophical movement best represented by the work of painter Piet Mondrian.
Dead LoadIt is the sum of loads comprising of the self-weight of the structure (weight of walls, floors, roofs etc.) weight of its footings foundation and loads of all other permanent construction in the building.
Dead ShoresThis is the system of shoring which is used to render vertical support to walls and roofs, floors etc.
DebossTo depress a design in leather, paper, or composition board.Decoupage
DecorateitonlineA revolutionary concept in interior decorating featuring a comprehensive website filled with decorating advice, affordable professionally-prepared design portfolios, and a fabulous online store with fabulous furniture and accessories from around the world.
Decorative ArtsArts such as ceramics, metal work, textiles, and furniture that are suitable as decoration.
Decorative DesignA classification of design wherein the building, furniture piece, or object is decorated with ornamentation. Decorative design is broken into four categories
Decorative FinishesA term for a group of finishes that add decorative appeal to fabrics. Examples of mechanical decorative finishes include various calendering, flocking, and napping finishes. Chemical decorative finishes include etch or burn-out printing and finishes that add brightness, softness, texture, stiffening, and delustering.
Decorative HardwareDecorative hardware is hardware that is seen or displayed in certain areas like knobs or pulls on kitchen cabinetry.
Decorative LuminaireAnother term for portable luminaire, consisting of plug-in, movable luminaires such as table and floor lamps. Also refers to an architectural or built-in luminaire that is decorative.
Decorator RodsMetal drapery rods that are decorative with traverse cord-and-pulley workings.
DehumidifierA unit connected to an air-conditioning unit that draws off excess humidity as a part of the cooling system.
DemographicsThe statistical data of a particular population.
DenimThis basic cotton cloth - first brought to America by Columbus almost 500 years ago as the sails on the Santa Maria - is rugged, tough, and serviceable. It is easily recognized by its traditional indigo-blue color warp and gray or mottled white filling, and its left hand twill on the face. Today, we most commonly associate denim as the material used for making blue jeans.
DentilA decorative trim of projecting rectangular blocks.
DentilsA small square block used in series in Ionic, Corinthian, Composite, and, more rarely, Doric cornices.
Dentils (Or Dentil Molding)Rectangular tooth-like blocks spaced at equal intervals along a cornice molding.
Depth Of The ArchIt is the perpendicular distance between the intrados and the extrados.
Descriptive SpecificationDescribes, often in intricate detail, the materials, workmanship, manufacture methods, and installation of the obligatory goods.
DesignThe art of conceptualizing the appearance of an object or space. The term also refers to the style, appearance, or characteristic of an item such as a modern lamp or rustic bench.
Design Development PhaseInvolves the preparation of all final plans, presentation graphics, and specifications required to explain design concepts to the client.
Design ProcessThe sequence of steps in creating and executing a design project.
Designer RugsCustom-designed tufted or woven area rugs.
Desk Manager SoftwarePrograms with specific options for managing a business.
DestijlA 20th Century style originating in the Netherlands. As with other Dutch furniture of the period, DeStijl furniture is characteristically simple and clean-lined.
Detached DwellingA single home on a lot of its own.
Dewolfe, Elsie (1865-1950)The greatest and best known of the society interior designers who paved the way for the modern interior design profession.
Dhurrie RugA flat woven wool or cotton rug featuring beautiful designs. Find a rug.
Dhurrie RugsOriginally cotton, now wool flat tapestry weave reversible rugs. Most are imported from India to meet Western demands.
Diagonal LinesAngular lines that may go one (or more) directions in an interior. Diagonal lines suggest movement and action.
DiagrammingThe graphic process of planning space on paper.
Diamond TuftingAn arrangement of tufted buttons which yields a diamond shaped pattern on the back of an upholstered piece of furniture.
Diaper-WorkA surface decoration that consists of a series of reticulations each of which contains an ornamental unit, such as a flower or leaf.
Dichroic GlassA thin metallic coating on any type of glass. This coating is applied at a high temperature in a vacuum chamber.
Die FormingThe process of placing metal between two steel dies or stamps and squeezing them together under high pressure. The process shapes and strengthens the metal.
DiffusersThe glass or plastic cover over a luminaire that serves to soften the light and spread it evenly over the area.
Digital ImagingRefers to the creation, manipulation, and production of images by use of computer technology, including software printers.
Dimensional StabilityThe ability of a fabric to maintain or return to its original shape.
Dimmer SwitchA switch that can vary the intensity of the light it controls.
DinetteA small dining set, which is often used in the kitchen. Find a dinette set.
Dining RoomTraditionally a formal room dedicated to the serving of meals. Find dining room furniture.
DiptychArtwork on two panels that are hung together. Historically, a hinged, two-paneled painting or bas-relief.
Direct ComplementTwo colors that are directly across from each other on the color wheel.
Direct GlareGlare from an insufficiently shielded light source directly into the line of vision.
Direct Glue-DownA method of laying carpeting where a layer of adhesive is applied to the floor and the carpet is laid directly on top of it, with no pad.
Direct LaborThe time the various employees spend directly involved in the generation of the revenues of the firm.
Direct LightingLighting that shines directly on the desired area.
Direct PasteupGluing fabric or wall coverings up with paste or adhesive.
Direct PrintingAlso known as roller, calendar or cylinder printing; the colors are printed directly onto the fabric in the same manner as the printing of wallpaper.
Direct Solar GainHeating an area through direct exposure of sunshine to the occupied space.
DirectoireThe Directoire period of furniture (late 1700's to early 1800's) was a result of French reign under five directors. Styling was controlled by a Jury of Arts and Manufactures. All emblems of royalty and aristocracy in furniture design were abolished. Classic decorations including griffins and caryatids are familiar in Directoire furniture. This period is influenced hugely by Greek, Egyptian, and Roman styling. Simple elegance characterizes this period.
Disc FootA flat, disc-shaped foot used on tables and chairs. Very common on chrome dining furnishings from the 1950's and 1960's.
Disc PilesIt consists of hollow mettalic pipe attached with a cast iron disc to its foot so as to enlarge the bearing area of the pile.
Discharge PrintingA process that removes the dyed color in patterned areas and replaces it with another color.
Dispersion TrenchesThis is an alternative method of disposal of effulent from septic tank by soil absorption system.
DistemperDistempers may be defined as water paints consisting of whiting (powered chalk), some colouring pigment and glue size mixed in water.
DistressedA finish made to appear old or antique by the intentional addition of dents, scratches, and flecks of paint during the finishing process.
Distressed (Or Distressing)A furniture trait where pieces are purposely dented or otherwise marked to render an antique or rustic appearance.
Distressed FinishA decorative paint technique in which the final paint coat is sanded and battered to pro-duce the markings of wear and the patina of age.
DistributionCarrying air heated by active or passive solar systems to the various areas or rooms within a building.
Doctor Of PhilosophyPh. D., or doctorate degree; a possible requirement for full-time, tenure-track teaching positions in colleges and universities.
Dog-Legged StairIt consists of two straight flights of steps with abrupt turn between them. This type of stair is useful where the width of the stair-case hall is just sufficient to accommodate two widths of stair.
DolanA registered trademark of Hoechst for acrylic.
DomeAn inverted round dish or cup-shaped ceiling.
Dome System ConstructionAn arch rotated in a circle to become a dome.
Domestic Oriental RugsJacquard machine-woven rugs in Oriental rug designs.
DoorA door may be defined as a barrier secured in an opening left in a wall to provide usual means of access to a building, room or passage.
Door ShutterDoor shutter is the moving part of the door and their number varies.
DoorframeThe doorframe is permanently held in position and fixed to the masonry of the opening with the help of hold-fasts or rawl plugs.
DoricFeaturing a fluted, tapered shaft and a square abacus capital, the Doric column is the simplest of the architectural orders.
DormerA window set vertically in a structure projecting through a sloping roof.
Dormer WindowIt is a vertical window built in the sloping side of a pitched roof. This window is provided to achieve proper ventilation and lighting of the enclosed space below the roof.
Double Bed (Or Full Size)Refers to a bed for a mattress that measures 54"x75". Was once the standard or most popular size bed. Sometimes referred to as a full, double or standard. Find a mattress set.
Double ComplementTwo sets of direct complementary colors next to each other on the color wheel.
Double Extra Long (Or Full Extra Long)A double/full mattress that measures 54"x80". Find a mattress set.
Double Flemish BondIn this type of bonding brick work, each course presents the same appearance both in the front and back elevations.
Double GlazingFilling a window opening with two layers of glass that provide insulation and increase energy efficiency at the window. Also known as twin glazing.
Double RollA roll of wall covering with approximately seventy-two square feet, or double the area of a single roll.
Double-HungTwo layers of draperies, an overdrapery and an underlayer. Also, two sets of shutters, one installed directly above the other.
Double-Hung SashSash window where both sections are operable.
Double-Hung WindowA window with two vertical sliding sashes, that can be raised and lowered independently of each other.
Double-Shirred ValanceA valance shirred, or gathered, at the top and bottom.
Double-Turn StairA stair that makes two ninety-degree turns on two separate landings.
Double-Wide Mobile HomeA mobile home that is fabricated into sections the size of a single-wide trailer, then fitted together to become twenty-four to thirty feet wide and twenty to forty feet long.
Dover ChestAn early American hope chest that was normally made of maple or oak.
DovetailJoint construction made by cutting pins in the shape of dovetails, which fit between dovetails upon another piece. Commonly found in drawer construction.
Dovetail JointIn this method of fastening woodwork, wedge-shaped or flaring shaped pieces are cut out of each member and hooking the projection of one member into the other one forms the joint.
DowelA headless wooden pin used in furniture construction.
Dowel JointThis type of joint ensures stability of the components against displacement or sliding.
DownSoft breast feathers from ducks or geese.
Dowry ChestA chest that was made to hold the personal possessions of a prospective bride. Notable examples in American furniture history include the Hadley chest, the Connecticut chest and the paint Pennsylvania-German chest.
Draft DodgersA sand-filled tube of fabric or a heavy rug placed against a door to prevent cold air infiltration.
DraftingThe drawing by hand, machine, or computer of floor plans.
DraftsmanA person who drafts, draws, or produces floor plans and blueprints.
DraggingA paint effect that produces fine stripes on a surface, usually done by dragging a dry brush or through a glaze.
Dragging And CombingProduction of fine paint lines with a dry brush over a wet glaze or combing with any hard comblike tool.
DrainA line of pipes including all fittings and equipment such as manholes, traps, floor traps used for the drainage of a building.
DrainageThe removal of any liquid (storm water, wastewater, sewage etc.) by a system constructed for this purpose.
DralonA registered trademark of Bayer for acrylic.
DrapabilityThe characteristic of a fabric to fall nicely into folds when draped.
DraperiesPleated fabric hung with hooks on a traverse rod. Also refers to stationary side panels, tied-back fabric, and occasionally shirred panels.
DraperyOne of the most common types of window covering in residential and commercial interiors.
Draught ChairThe early English equivalent of a wingback chair.
Draw DraperiesCurtains or drapes mounted on a horizontal traversed rod so they can be open and closed with a pull cord. Find draperies and curtains.
Drawer Guides (Or Glides)Term referring to the track or runners allowing a drawer to move freely and evenly in a piece of furniture such as a dresser. There are many types of guides including wooden center guides, metal glides with rollers, and metal ball bearing guides.
DrawingsOne-of-a-kind, two-dimensional art forms produced with pencil, pen and ink, charcoal, chalk, crayon, or grease pencil on paper or other surfaces.
DresserA long chest of drawers used to store clothes. Term originally referred to a type of sideboard that was used for serving food and storing dishes. Find a bedroom dresser.
Dressing Of StoneBuilding stone has to be quarried out from the rock formation before it can be put into use and the process is called dressing of stone. The quarry of stone may be done either by hands or machines.
DrierThese are the materials containing mettalic compounds and are used in small quantities for accelerating the drying of paint film. They act as catalysts for the oxidation and polymerization of the vehicle used in the paint.
Drop FrontThe hinged front of an upright desk that drops down to provide a surface for writing.
Drop HandleA pear-shaped handle made popular in the late 17th Century.
Drop LeafA dining or occasional table with hinged leaves that can be lowered. Find a drop leaf dining table.
Drop Lid DeskA desk with a hinged front that covers the inner compartments. Find home office furniture.
Drop SeatA concave seat where the middle and front are lower than the side.
Drop-In SeatAn upholstered seat frame that sits in the main framework of a chair.
Drop-In Spring UnitA coil spring assembly (much like a mattress coil unit) used in upholstery to simulate an eight-way-hand-tied feel and support.
Drop-Leaf TableA table with a fixed center section and side flaps that can be lowered or raised and held up with various types of supports. Also called occasional table.
Dropped-Pendant LuminairesSimple, suspended luminaires dropped from the ceiling with a cord or chain.
DrumA cylindrical portion of a building used as the base for a dome.
Drum DyeingMaximum dye penetration of leather by immersing it in a dye solution in a tumbling drum.
Drum TableA circular top table on a tripod base with a deep skirt that may contain drawers.
Dry BrushingA paint technique in which a brush is worked over a glaze to create a cloudy effect.
DrywallAnother term for wallboard, sheetrock, or plasterboard; wall material made of pulverized gypsum rock.
DuckA closely woven heavy durable material.
Duck FootA webbed foot attached to a table leg which curves outward.
Duct Work Or DuctsMetal or plastic pipes that funnel heated or air-conditioned air throughout an interior.
Dumb WaiterA type of dining room stand with a central shaft and circular trays, which often revolves to enable those who are dining to help themselves to additional plates. Term also applies to a pulley type elevator that brought food up from a basement kitchen to the first floor dining room.
Duncan PhyfeA furniture style popular in the late 1700's to early 1800's. Duncan Phyfe pieces are characterized by feet that gracefully curve outward on both tables and sofas. Duncan Phyfe seating pieces often have lyre-shaped backs, rolled top rails and arms.
DupioniA lustrous silk woven from two different colors of threads so that it shimmers or changes color in the light.
DuplexA twin home dwelling?two units sharing one roof and foundation.
DurabilityIt is the property of concrete by virtue of which it is capable of resisting its disintegration and decay, which is caused due to any condition.
Durable FinishesChemical or decorative finishes that remain on the fabric through repeated cleaning.
Durable Press CalenderingA decorative mechanical finish that resin presses for durability and pattern impressions.
DurelA registered trademark of Celanese for olefin.
Durry RugsSee dhurrie rugs.
Dust Cover (Or Cambrick)A non-woven cloth that covers the bottom of an upholstered piece of furniture such as a sofa or box spring. Also referred to as cambrick.
Dust PanelA panel, usually of hardboard, placed between drawers to keep dust and other objects from passing between levels.
Dust RuffleDust ruffles fit under the mattress and on top of the box spring to decorate with fabric to the floor. Find home accessories and bedding.
Dustboard (Dust Panel)A panel placed between drawers in a chest or dresser to eliminate dust.
Dutch DoorA double door, split in half, with independent top and bottom sections.
Dutch DresserA cabinet with open shelves on the upper portion, and drawers or cupboard below.
Dutch FootA simple pad used as the foot on a cabriole leg. Sometimes confused with a duck foot.
Dutch RenaissanceThis furniture style was a huge influence on late English design. It is characterized by its square heavy style and its straight dominate lines. Chairs were made with turned legs, straight stretchers and low backs that were also straight in design. The main decoration was carving with leaves and scrolling. Chair seats often had leather attached with brass nails, also referred to as nailhead. Oak was the favored wood of choice. Most popular during the 1500's through the 1600's.
Dutch StyleEarly Flemish Baroque furniture, dating from the 17th Century, was but a slight adaptation of the late Renaissance style. Typical are oak cupboards with four doors and chairs with seats and backs of velvet or leather held in place by nails. Most pieces are massive, solid unpretentious pieces made of local woods with turnings.
DuvetA nondecorative comforter that is covered with a removable cover.
Duvet CoverA removable cover that encases a down-filled comforter known as a duvet. Find bedding and home accessories.
Dye LotBecause fabrics are dyed in varying quantities of yardage, consistency of color will vary. Therefore there will be differences in color from bolt to bolt.
DyeingThe process of coloring done in one of several stages
DyestuffA water-soluble coloring matter used to make a dye bath solution.
DyingThe process of applying color to fiber stock, yarn or fabric; there may or may not be thorough penetration of the colorant into the fibers or yarns.
DykeAn igneous intrusion, rather like a wall, into the surrounding rocks.
DynelA registered trademark of Union Carbide for modacrylic.
Eames, Charles (1907-78) And RayAn important husband-wife design team responsible for several modern classic furniture pieces.
Early AmericanAmerican furniture design of the late 1600's to early 1700's (still popular today), adapted from popular European styles such as Jacobean and William and Mary. The look is characterized by straight lines and minimal decoration. The style has merged into what is now called Colonial, normally featuring elements of Queen Anne and Chippendale design.
Early American (1650-1750)A general term for American Provincial or country New England interiors.
Early Christian (A.D. 330-800)The architectural period following the official recognition of the Christian church by the Roman government.
Early Georgian(1695-1750) Architectural period that first brought the design and elegance of the English Renaissance to America.
Early RenaissanceEarly 1500's, the transitional period between Gothic Arts and the Classical Revival. Characterized by arch form, ornament and detail in style and decoration, high relief carving with diamond shapes and architectural pilasters, and ornamented with olive, laurel and acanthus leaves. Pieces usually featured no hardware.
EarsMoldings on panels, door frames, or chimneypieces that break to form small molded squares or ears at the corners.

Ceramic ware with a permeable or porous body after firing (usually to a temperature of 1600°F to 1900°F).

EasementsShort bends in the handrail that allow it to change direction.
EastlakeCharles Eastlake designated the Eastlake period and was popular in both England and America in the late 19th Century. Eastlake furniture had a medieval styling with a Gothic and Japanese decoration. The favorite woods were cherry wood and other fruitwoods. Panels were sometimes adorned with tile and metal for an added decoration.
Eastlake, Charles (1793-1865)Nineteenth-century English designer and scholar who advocated the Gothic Revival style. Wrote 1-lints on Household Taste.
Easy ChairAny large chair which is suitable for lounging. Find a living room chair.
EavesThe lower edge of the inclined roof surface of a pitched roof is termed as eaves.
EbenisteAn ordinary term for a French cabinet maker.
EbonizeA painting effect where an object is treated with color to make it look like ebony.
EchinusAn oval-shaped molding between the shaft and the abacus on a column.
EchoesWhen a reflecting surface is so far away from the source that the sound is reflected back as a distinct repetition of the direct sound, the reflected sound is called an echo.
EclecticA style of decorating combining furniture and accessories of various styles and periods.
EconomyThe relative cost of items as related to an allotted budget.
Effects Of CrowdingThe effects of crowding are inordinate exposure to sounds, smells, and touch.
EfficacyLumens per watt is a measure of the efficacy or efficiency of the light source.
EfflorescenceIf soluble salts are present in bricks or the mortar, they absorb moisture from atmosphere and go into solution which appears on the surface in the form of whitish substance as the moisture dries out and the salts crystallise.
Egg & DartA classic design of alternating oval and dart shapes, commonly applied to cornices.
Egg And DartA decorative pattern consisting of alternating shapes of ovoid and arrow, usually used for molding.
EggshellAn oil-based paint that has a low-sheen satin finish.
Eggshell EnamelA hard finish semigloss paint.
EgressThe way out; exit.
EgyptianThis is arguably the first "influential" style of design dating from 4000 to 300 B.C. Pieces were very colorful and highly decorated. Carvings featured papyrus, lotus, and human and animal forms. Seating was usually of leather or cane and loose cushions were common. The most popular woods of choice were sycamore, cedar, yew and olivewood. Royal pieces were normally further decorated with inlaid ivory, gold and jewels. Egyptian styling has also been a huge influence on craftsmen of later eras.
Egyptian CottonFine lustrous long staple cotton. Several varieties - usually brown in color. 1-2/5" average. Used in U.S. for thread and fine fabrics.
Eight PlexAn apartment building containing eight units.
Eight-Way Hand TiedSprings used in upholstered furniture, in which each spring is tied in eight directions by hand securing the springs inside of the frame.
ElementsThe five elements in Chinese belief  earth, wood, fire, metal, and water that offer essential clues to the practice of Feng Shui.
Elements Of DesignThe tactile portion of interiors that can be manipulated by the designer. These are space, shape or form, mass, line, texture, pattern, light, and color.
ElevationA flat, two-dimensional drawing of a straight-on (orthographic) view of an object, an exterior facade, or an interior wall.
ElizabethanA large furniture style of severe form that emerged during the reign of Elizabeth I in England during the latter half of the 1500's. Elizabethan pieces are characterized by heavy carving and massive size.
EluraA registered trademark of Monsanto for mnodacrvlic.
EmbellishmentDecoration or ornamentation added to an object or an interior.
Embossed Loop PileA looped pile surface carpet with high and low, or multilevel, loops; creates a random pattern.
Embossed Wall CoveringsWallpapers with an imprinted, three-dimensional design.
EmbossingA technique to impress or stamp a design onto a piece of furniture; mostly used on wood pieces to resemble carving.
EmbroideryOrnamental needlework consisting of designs worked on fabric with either silk, cotton, metalized, or other threads, either by hand or machine.
EmphasisA principle of design that indicates attention is given to a certain area within an interior. Emphasis is also called focal point.
EmpireA style inspired by the Napoleonic Empire, which features heavy looking classical designs and combines straight lines and curves, sleigh beds are a good example of this styling.
EmulsionA water-based paint that's mainly applied to walls and ceilings.
Enamel PaintsOil-based or sometimes water-based paints that are hard and glossy.
Enameled GlassGlass decorated with particles of translucent glass or glass-like material, usually of a contrasting color, which fuses to the surface under heat. Multicolored designs can be created, as well as monochrome coatings.
EncarpaA festoon of fruit and flowers traditionally used to decorate friezes and other flat spaces.
EncausticA paint medium in which pigment is suspended in molten wax and resin. After applying the paint to a panel or canvas, the artist passes a heat element over the work to fuse the colors into a fixed, uniform film.
EncoignureAn 18th-19th Century casework piece similar to a corner cabinet. Its front is typically rounded or diagonal, and it rests on three or four feet. Often, the top portion contains shelves in graduated sizes.
EncronA registered trademark of American Enka for polyester.
End MatchingTwo adjacent pieces of veneer, which are joined end to end to form a continuous pattern.
End TableA small accent table that is usually placed at the end of a couch, beside chair or beside. Most commonly made of wood, metal and glass, or a combination of these materials. Find an end table.
EndiveA carved leaf design following the lines of the endive plant.
Energy ConsciousnessA term often associated with window treatments-covering windows to keep in winter heat and exclude summer solar gain or hear.
Engaged ColumnA half column that is set against a wall or into a wall.
Engineered Wood FlooringFlooring that is created from layers of wood bonded together through adhesive. Makes for a very dimensionally stable floor, ideal for areas prone to changes in temperature and humidity.
English BondThis bond consists of alternate course of headers and stretchers. In this arrangement, vertical joints in the header courses come over each other and the vertical joints in the stretcher course are also in the same line.
English RegencyOften referred to as the English version of the French Empire, this period (1810-1830) reflected the general European interest in antiquity and return to classic forms, rich ornamentation. Furniture was small-scaled, well-proportioned; combining curves and straight lines.
English StyleThe period distinctions of English furniture are somewhat indefinite owing to the variety of labels according to monarchs, designers, typical woods and external influences. Changes were happening so rapidly that primarily the type of wood used distinguished the boundaries of the English style.
EngravingAn intaglio printing process in which a design is incised into a metal plate. Characterized by sharp, clean lines and high definition.
EngravingsPrints made from a hand-engraved metal plate.
EnkromeA registered trademark of American Enka for viscose rayon.
EntablatureThe horizontal element that rests upon the columns in classical architecture. Consists of the architrave, frieze, and cornice.
Entertainment CenterA piece of furniture designed to hold entertainment equipment such as TV's and stereo components. Find an entertainment center.
EnvelopeA passive solar building system wherein air circulates in a double-wall construction around the house and includes a south-facing solarium.
Epoxy PaintUsed to paint over metal or water-filled surfaces. Contains hardeners.
EquilibriumA state of physical or visual balance or equality.
Er LampsSee R, ER lamps.
Erformance SpecificationA specification establishing product requirements based on exacting performance criteria. These criteria must be based on the qualitative or measurable statements.
ErgonomicTerm that relates to furniture design and function for the human form; very commonly found in home office furnishings such ergonomic chairs for example.
ErgonomicsSee biotechnology.
Escritoire A writing desk with a fall front that lowers to form a writing surface. The English word 'secretary' was derived from this term.
EscutcheonThe shaped metal fitting/backing behind a drawer pull or surrounding a keyhole. The term can also apply to a tiny plate that hangs over a keyhole to stop drafts from coming in. The term can be further applied to a shield upon which a coat of arms or other devices are emblazoned.
EspagnolettesA long bolt sometimes found on French windows. It consists of a handle that sends the bolt into the top and bottom of the wall.
EstronA registered trademark of Eastman Kodak for acetate.
EtagereA small, upright set of free-standing open-sided shelves for displaying small decorative items.
Etch Or Burn-Out PrintingA decorative chemical finish printed with acid to burn out one fiber?usually cotton in a cotton/polyester blend?to leave a sheer pattern.
Etched GlassGlass decorated, carved, or otherwise marked by sandblasting or the use of hydrofluoric acid. The glass is partially covered with an acid-resistant wax or gum and the exposed are is etched.
EtchingA printing method in which compound agents are used to deepen lines drawn onto a printing plate.
EtchingsPrints made from metal plates that have patterns and designs chemically etched into their surface.
Ethical StandardsDefine what is correct and incorrect in relation to the professional behavior of the members and even the practice of the profession.
European Handmade RugsFrench Savonnerie and Aubusson, Portuguese needlepoint, and Spanish rugs.
European StyleSophisticated style with great attention to detail and ornamentation.
Evaporative Cooling SystemAlso called swamp cooling, the system is based on air flowing through a wet pad. Useful and economical in arid climates.
EvoluteA recurrent wave motif for a band, frieze or cornice.
ExecutionThe final phase of the design process where the design plans are implemented.
ExitA passage, channel or means of egress from any building, storey or floor area to a street or other open space of safety.
Expansion JointsThese joints are provided to accommodate the expansion of adjacent building parts and to relieve compressive stress that may otherwise develop.
Exposed AggregatePebbles set into and protruding above a concrete base. Hard flooring and wall material.
Exterior VeneerThe finish building material on the exterior, such as masonry (brick, stone) or siding (metal, wood, stucco).
External WallAn outer wall of a building not being a party wall even though adjoining to a wall of another building and also means a wall abutting on an interior open space of any building.
ExtradosIt is the outer surface of an arch or the outer curve of the arch ring. Enamel paint - It is made by adding pigments like white lead or zinc white to a vehicle which is a varnish.
Extrude/ExtrusionTo force out through a small opening; a method used to form tubular steel. Also, man-made fibers formed by forcing a viscose solution through a spinnerette.
Extrusive RockThe cooling of magma on the earth's surface creates an igneous rock.
EyeballA recessed spotlight that shines at an angle on a wall or object.
Eyeball SpotsSemi-recessed lights set in the ceiling, which can be adjusted to shine in different directions.
EyeletA small hole in a piece of fabric designed for a cord to be thread through or used for decoration (as in embroidery).
F LampA flame-shaped, often fluted lamp for decorative fixtures such as a candelabra.
Fabric ArtHandwoven or constructed fabric or textile pieces that hang on the wall.
Fabric ShadesVertically or horizontally operated shades of fabric, including roller, Roman, balloon, and Austrian shades.
Fabric Wall CoveringsHeavy wall coverings made sturdy and substantial with a fabric, rather than paper, backing. Used for vinyl and nonresidential wall coverings.
FacadeThe front or principal face of a building.
FaçadeThe front portion of a building.
Face WeightYarn weight. of carpeting per square measure. Ileavier weights indicate more face or pile yarn, or greater density.
FacetedDecorative surface cut into sharp-edged planes in a crisscross pattern to reflect light.
Facia BoardIt is a wooden plank usually 25mm thick and 15cm wide fixed along the eaves connecting the feet of the common rafters.
Fall Front

The flap of a bureau or secr'taire that pulls down to provide a writing surface. Find home office furniture.

Fan LightA semicircular window with ribbed bars, normally found over a door or another window.
Fan PatternedThe description of a chair back when fitted with ribs or channels that resemble the stalks of a half open fan.
Fancy-Faced VeneersVeneers that are cut into exotic patterns, which are usually used in more visible areas of wooden furniture such as door fronts and table tops.
FanlightThe function of fanlight is to ensure cross ventilation in the room even when the door is closed. It also assists in providing natural light in the corridors or passages.
Farthingale ChairAn armless upholstered chair for ladies wearing enormous skirts of the early Stuart era.
FaultA fracture within a rock mass where the rocks on one side have moved in relation to those on the other side.
FauteuilAn upholstered French armchair with open spaces between the arms and seat. Find a living room chair.
FauxA simulation of something else. An example of this would be faux marble, which is a marble-like surface painted onto walls or other surfaces (see trompe l'oeil).
Faux FinishA decorative paint technique that imitates a pattern found in nature.
Faux-FinishA decorative technique in which paint or stain is applied to a surface to simulate another material such as wood, marble, or granite.
Feasibility StudiesIn-depth estimates of the cost of planning and specification of a project undertaken prior to any actual planning.
Feather BandingTwo narrow bands of veneer laid in opposite diagonals.
Feather BedA quilted mattress topper stuffed with feathers or goose down. Find a feather bed.
FederalDesign period following the American Revolution and running roughly through the early 1800's. Federal styles incorporate the neo-classical influences of Sheraton and Hepplewhite including straight and delicate lines, tapered legs, and contrasting veneers.
Federal (1790-1830)The post-revolutionary period in America.
FeldsparCrystalline materials mixed with kaolin to make porcelain.
FeltA cotton material commonly used for cushioning or lining the inside of a piece of furniture such as a jewelry armoire or the drawers of a buffet.
Felt PaddingAnimal and/or synthetic fibers compressed and needlepunched; used for carpet underlay to protect carpet without great resilience.
Fender PilesWhen the piles are used to protect concrete deck or other water front structures from the abrasion or impact that may be caused from the ships or barges (when they are tied up at the deck ) they are called fender piles.
FenestrationRefers to the use of windows on a wall.
Feng ShuiLiterally, wind/water, the Chinese system of balancing the energy patterns of the physical environment.
FerruleNormally a metal cap attached to the end of a slender shaft for strength or to prevent splitting.
FestoonA length of garland, foliage, flowers or branches that are entwined or bound together, usually hanging in a curve between two points.
Festoon BlindSimilar to an Austrian blind, but with gathered scallops throughout the length of the blind.
Ff & E (Furniture, Furnishings, And Equipment)Nickname for projects that have minimal or no construction work involved.
FiberA natural or synthetic substance such as cotton or polyester that can be separated into thread-like filaments and be spun, woven or matted.
Fiber Felt PaddingSee felt padding.
Fiber RugA floor covering made of tightly twisted strips of paper often coated with vinyl to resist friction and moisture.
FiberboardA board made of compressed wood fibers and glue.
FiberfillGeneric term for all stuffing fibers or materials used in battings, quiltings, sleeping bags, pillows, etc.
Fiberglass Or Glass FiberA synthetic mineral fiber made of spun glass used for insulation, tub enclosures, and contract draperies. (A registered trademark of Owens-Corning for glass fiber or fiberglass.)
FibralonA registered trademark of Fibron for olefin.
FibroA registered trademark of Courtaulds for rayon.
Fiddle BackA backsplat in the shape of a violin (fiddle) that is typically seen on Queen Anne chairs.
FiddlebackA unique figure on the face of a wood, giving it a washboard effect.
FiderThe Foundation for Interior Design Education and Research, which establishes standards for design education. Also a design school accrediting body.
FieldstoneAny type of large, rugged rocks used for flooring or walls.
FigureThe pattern produced in wood by annual growth rings, rays, knots, color variation, and the manner in which the log was cut.
FiguringA pattern made by the natural grain of wood.
FilamentThe continuous man-made fiber strand extruded through the spinnerette. Filaments are combined and spun into threads or yarns. Natural filaments are silk and horsehair.
Filament LightingLight that's produced by heating a small filament inside a bulb, as with a common light bulb.
File CabinetA piece of office furniture used for storing files. File cabinets normally consist of one to four drawers. Find a file cabinet.
FiligreeA decorative ornamentation that's often produced with fine wires of gold or silver in the form of scrolls and arabesques.
Fill (Or Weft)Visible yarns in a fabric that are woven through the less visible foundation of the warp yarns. The term 'fill' can also apply to how an item is stuffed such as a 100% down-fill pillow.
FillersPreparatory materials for surfaces to be painted. Used to fill in nail holes, cracks, or other imperfections.
FillingA step in the manufacturing finishing process where the filling of natural pores in wood allows the surface to become smoother and more reflective.
Filling YarnsThe set of yarns woven crosswise into the set of long warp yarns that are threaded onto a loom. Also called weft.
FinaA registered trademark of Monsanto for acrylic.
Fine ArtsThe arts of architecture, painting, drawing, sculpture, and printmaking, as well as music, literature, drama, and dance.
Finger JointA joint in which two pieces of wood are cut in an elongated zigzag pattern and joined together with glue.
Finger PlatesNarrow rectangular panels, often made in the same material as the door knob, which are fixed to the door to protect against dirty finger marks.
FinialThe decorative end piece on a curtain rod. Often in the shape of a spear, ball, leaf,or pineapple.
FinishThe surface coating of an item, which can include paints, stains, varnishes, fabric treatments, etc. Wood, metal, fabric, stone and many other materials require a finish for reasons such as coloring, texture, and protection from moisture.
Finish CarpenterOne who creates custom woodwork and cabinetry.
Finish PackageThe woodwork in an interior, including items such as built-in shelving, cabinets, case piece units, baseboard/door/window trim, and railings.
Finish PlumbingThe installation of sinks, toilets, and faucet hardware.
Finished LengthThe length of a finished, hemmed fabric window treatment.
Finished Pile WeightWeight in ounces per square measure of finished carpeting.
FinishesThese are a group of finishes that render a fabric more resistant to bacteria, static, wrinkling, flammability, insects, soil, humidity damage and increase insulative qualities. A general term for processes that do one of the following
FinishingProcesses or chemicals that render fabrics more durable or decorative.
Finishing CoatThis is the last coat applied on the surface after the undercoat is properly dry.
Finnish StyleFinnish furniture designers used bent and laminated (layers of solid wood) woods to create organic, humanistic forms and lightweight open shapes. These designers were also the first to experiment with tubular steel in furniture design.
Fire Alert SystemA network or single unit that senses heat or smoke, then alerts the occupants through a shrill noise.
Fire RetardantCertain man-made fibers such as modacrylic, saran, and PVC that resist burning but are not flame-proof.
FireboxThe box or chamber containing the fire of a furnace or fireplace.
Fireplace InsertAn enclosed stove unit that can be placed in an existing fireplace to make it more efficient.
FiresurroundShelf and side elements framing a fireplace. Also called chimneypiece or mantelpiece.

Heating clay, glaze, enamel, or other material to the temperature needed to achieve a desired structural change. Most ceramics are fired in a kiln to temperatures ranging from 1600°F to 2300°F.

FirmnessA sought after quality by many in upholstered furniture and mattresses, which is usually interpreted to mean support. Firmness for some is a comfort term synonymous with hardness, and for others it is a structural term associated with support.
Fish-Scale ShinglesSmall shingles with round or pointed sawtooth ends used to create decorative surface effects on the nineteenth-century Queen Anne-style houses.
FittingsThe plumbing devices that bring water to the fixtures, such as faucets.
Fixed WindowA window that cannot be opened. It is usually a decorative unit, such as a half-round or Pal-ladian-style window.
FixtureAny fixed part of the structural design, such as sinks, windows, or doors.
Fixture Or LuminaireThe structural or decorative unit that holds the lamp or bulb and the electric connectors. In fluorescent and lighting, it also contains the ballast.
Fixture SpacingRefers to how far apart to space ambient-light fixtures for an even field of light.
Flag StoneAny laminiscated sandstone available in uniform thickness is called flag stone.
FlagstoneHard, nonresilient stone that splits into sheets, used for paving and flooring.
FlambeauA carved decoration in the shape of a flaming torch.
Flame ResistantA term referring to fabrics such as wool, silk, nylon, olefin, and polyester that do not ignite easily, are slow-burning, and will often self-extinguish.
Flame StitchA wavy angular pattern that looks like the shape of a flickering flame, normally found on brocade fabrics.
Flame-Retardant FinishesChemical finishes that make a fabric that is constructed of a flammable fiber become resistant to fire ignition and spread. Chemical applications that render a fabric less flammable.
Flame-Retardant PaintsPaints with additives that inhibit combustibility.
Flammability ResistanceAbility of background textiles to resist catching on fire and/or sustaining a flame. Nonresidential code requirement.
Flammability TestsTests that measure the rate of ignition, the rate of flame spread when the source of the fire is removed, how long the fabric continues to burn, how long it remains in a red-glow state, and the density and toxicity of the fumes. These tests are conducted to meet stringent nonresidential state and local fire codes.
Flammable Or InflammableA term that refers to fabrics, such as cellulosic cotton, linen, rayon, and acetate, that easily catch on fire or are highly combustible.
FlangeAn erect, projecting flattened ridge such as the top and bottom horizontal projections of an I beam. Also refers to a decorative finish sewn into a seam.
FlannelUsually a cotton or rayon fabric slightly napped on both sides to resemble woolen fabric used for some, blanketing, coating, etc. Woolen and worsted flannels are also popular.
FlareThe outward concave curve of a furniture leg.
FlatA British term for an apartment.
Flat ArchIt is also known as straight or camber arch and are laid with its bed joints radiating to centre. When used over opening of door or window, the flat arch acts similar to a lintel.
Flat PaintAny type of paint that dries to a matte or nonshiny finish.
Flat RoofA roof laid at an angle of less than 10 degrees to the horizontal is known as flat roof.
Flat Slab FlooringFlat slab , also known as beamless slab , is a type of construction in which the flooring slab is directly supported on columns without the agency of beams and girders.
Flat VarnishIt is sometimes desired that the varnished surface should present dull appearance. To attain this, manufactures make varnishes, which dry with reduced gloss by adding such material as wax, metallic, soap and finely divided silica.
Flat Weave RugThese rugs are not woven with knots and have not pile. They are usually wool or cotton. It is a good idea to use them with a rug pad so they do not slip and they are more comfortable to walk on. Kilims and Dhurrie rugs are types of flat weave rugs.
Flatbed Screen PrintingThe traditional method of stencil silk-screen printing where screens are manually or mechanically moved and paint squeegeed across by hand.
Flat-Screen TvA TV with a flat display.
FlatworkConcrete laid flat for foundation and garage floors, sidewalks, and driveways.
FlaxA plant from which linen is derived.
FlemishFlemish furniture was a product from master craftsmen of Flanders (Belgium). Flemish is usually included in Dutch Renaissance furniture and is not necessarily defined as a period of furniture, but more as an influence in design. Flemish furniture is famous for its distinct and careful carving and the Flemish foot. Flemish furniture is a product of French influence.
Flemish BondIn this arrangement of bonding brickwork, each course consists of alternate headers and stretchers. The alternate headers of each course are centered over the stretchers in the course below. Every alternate course starts with a header at the corner.
Flemish GableA gable incorporating steps, curves, or both.
Flemish ScrollA baroque form with the curve broken by an angle.
Fleur-De-LisTerm for a decorative French emblem in the form of a conventionalized floral design.
FlexibilityThe ability of a fabric to stretch and rebound to its original shape; a necessary characteristic in upholstery fabrics.
Flexible Wall CoveringsA general term for wall coverings that may be bent or manipulated to fit a shape or surface.
Flickering LightAn uneven source of light such as candlelight, firelight, or electric lamps that imitate this effect.
FlierIt is a straight step having a parallel width of tread.
FlightA series of steps without any platform , break or landing in their direction.
FlitchThe half or quarter log that is cut to make lumber for furniture construction.
Float ValveIt is used to supply water to a storage tank or flushing cistern and to automatically shut off the supply when the pre
Floccati RugsArea rugs woven or knitted with tufts of sheared goat's hair left in its natural cream or brown color.
Flock WallpaperWallpaper that has a raised fabric pattern. Find wallpaper.
Flocked CarpetA method of producing a carpet pile similar to velvet. Fibers are electrostatically charged, then embedded in a glue-coated fabric backing.
Flocked WallpapersWallpapers with chopped fibers affixed to the. surface in a decorative pattern.
FlockingA decorative process of adhering patterns of tiny fibers to the surface of a fabric; often seen in sheers and flocked dotted swiss fabrics.
FloggingBrickwork used as mull between timber framing.
FloodlightA reflective lamp spotlight with a wide-beam spread.
Floor LampA tall lamp with a base that stands on the floor. Find a floor lamp.
Floor PlansThe two-dimensional layout of rooms. Part of the working drawings and blueprints used to construct a space.
Floor TrapsTrap provided in floors to collect used water from floors of bathroom , kitchen or washing floor etc. are known as the floor traps.
FloorsFloors are flat supporting elements of a building. They divide building into different levels thereby creating more accommodation on a given plot of land.
FlowA smooth continuity achieved by design and decor elements being arranged harmoniously with some sense of shape, style and color.
Flowing LinesThese are a type of curved lines that suggest graceful continuous or growing movement.
FlueThe chimney pipe above the firebox in a fireplace.
FluoresceTo glow or become fluorescent.
FluorescentContains a mixture of an inert gas and low-pressure mercury vapor.
Fluorescent LightProduced by an arc, or discharge, between two electrodes inside a glass tube filled with very low-pressure mercury vapor that produces ultraviolet (invisible) radiation in wavelengths. These activate the white phosphorus lining of the lamp, causing it to glow and converting the ultraviolet energy into visible light.
Fluorescent Light BulbAn energy-efficient light source made of a usually tubular-shaped bulb that contains a glowing gas and is coated on the inside with phosporous.
Fluorescent LightingA type of lighting in which an electrical charge is passed through mercury vapor to create a chemical reaction that produces light. Uses far less energy and creates less heat than incandescent or halogen lighting, but the light quality and color rendering capabilities are diminished.
Flush DoorFlat doors with no raised or sunken panels.
Flush PointingIn this type of pointing, the mortar is pressed into the raked joints and finished off flush with the edges of the bricks or stones, so as to give a smooth appearance.
Flush-Face FireplaceA fireplace whose planes are flush with the wall in which it is built.
Flushing CisternA flushing cistern is used for storage and discharge of water for flushing of contents from a W.C. or urinal.
FluteA groove in the shaft of a column.
FlutedMarked by a series of vertical grooves, as on the shaft of a column, a pilaster, or a decorative molding.
FlutingA series of carved out semicircular grooves usually found on columns, molding or wooden legs.
Fly RailThe folding bracket that supports the drop leaf of a table.
Flying ButtressA horizontal brace that spans from the wall to a supporting abutment and receives the outward thrust of the wall.
Flying ShoresIt is a system of providing temporary support to the party walls of two buildings where the intermediate building is to be pulled down and rebuild.
FoamPadding material used in upholstered furniture and mattresses. Common types of foam include polyurethane, latex, and Viscoelastic ('Visco' or 'Memory Foam').
Foam CoreA cardboard-like material with a foam center available in varying thickness; commonly used to mount photographs and display materials.
Foam Rubber PadsCarpet underlay of foam rubber.
Fob (Free On Board)The shipper must assume that expense of loading the goods onto the truck as well the expenses and risk for shipping the goods to the FOB destination.
Fob,DestinationThe manufacturer retains ownership of the goods, pays all shipping expense, and assumes all risks until the goods reach the delivery destination.
Fob,FactoryThe buyer assumes ownership or title of the goods when they are loaded on the truck at the factory. The buyer assumes the transportation expenses and all risks.
Focal Point

A visual center of interest or point of emphasis in a room. A well designed room will have many engaging focal points.

Foil/Mylar Wall CoveringsA mirrorlike shiny or reflective background.
Fold-Down ShelfA spring-loaded shelf that swings up and out of a base cabinet for use, then folds down and back into the cabinet when it's not needed.
Folded Plate System ConstructionA building system of thin reinforced concrete in a folded, zigzag roof pattern.
FoliatedDecorated with leaf designs of an intricate pattern.
Folk RugsFlat tapestry rugs handmade by an ethnic group in native design and color.
FootboardA foot board is a vertical board or frame, not as high as a headboard. It is usually upholstered or finished wood.
Foot-CandleA unit that is used to measure brightness. A foot-candle is equal to one lumen per square foot of lighted surface.
Foot-Candle (Fc)A unit used to measure the bright-ness produced by a lamp. A foot-candle is equal to one lumen per square foot of surface.
FootcandlesA measurement of the amount of direct light hitting a surface.
FootingA foundation unit constructed in brickwork, masonry or concrete under the base of a wall or column for the purpose of distributing the load over a large area.
FootlambertsA measurement of the amount of light reflected off a surface.
Forced-Air HeatingA conventional furnace-powered heating system in which the hot air is blown through ducts and enters rooms through registers.
ForgedA blacksmithing technique, in which metal is shaped by hammering, usually while at red or white heat.
FormIs the basic shape and configuration of an object or space.
Formal AreasThe spaces in residential design where structured visiting, dining, and entertaining take place away from kitchen and other work spaces.
Formal BalanceAnother term for symmetrical, bisymmetrical, or passive balance.
FortrelA registered trademark of Celanese for polyester.
FossiloferousA rock containing fossils.
FoundationIt is the lowest part of the structure below the ground level, which is in direct contact with the ground and transmits all the dead, live and other loads to the soil on which the structure rests.
Four PlexA four-unit apartment building.
Four PosterA bed with posts that are tall enough to hold a canopy. Find bedroom furniture.
FqFull/Queen size. Fits both Full and/or Queen size. Approximate size for Comforter, Duvet Cover is 88"x96". FQ is also the abbreviation we use for the website.
FrameThe wooden framework of an upholstered piece of furniture.
Framed CabinetA cabinet with a full frame across the face of the cabinet box.
Frameless CabinetA cabinet without a face frame. It may also be called a "European-style" cabinet.
Framing Or FrameworkThe wooden or metal skeleton structure used for the majority of buildings today.
Freestanding FireplaceA self-contained fireplace unit that is away from the wall.
French BedA bed with ends that roll outward. It has no posts. Commonly referred to as a sleigh bed today.
French ClassicFrench Classic design was largely base on a complete avoidance of the curved line in furniture. This type of furniture is usually quite straight and simplistic in design. French Classic is considered an influence rather than a defined style and was influenced by an Italian flavor of styling. Decoration depends on fluted and grooved accents, geometric patterns and marquetry. Mahogany is the favored wood of French Classic designs, however rosewood, tulipwood, and ebony were used though less frequently. Most popular during the later 1700's.
French DoorDouble casement-type door that opens in or out.
French Empire Style of the early 1800's that expressed the imperial ambitions of Napoleon and was created at his command. Greek and Roman influence is apparent and though somewhat ostentatious, many pieces are considered quite exquisite even today. French Empire has simple construction with a deep rich varnish. Empire-wreaths. Roman eagles, lions, sphinx, and the letter "N" (for Napoleon himself of course) are the emblems that are familiar to this design. This style of furniture has mostly straight lines and often will have metal feet. Tabletops have marble tops. The most commonly used woods were mahogany, rosewood, and ebony.
French Empire (1804-20)The period during the time of Napoleon in France.
French PolishingTreating a wooden surface with French polish to give it a highly reflective, smooth finish.
French ProvincialRustic versions of formal French furnishings of the 1600's and 1700's, such as the Louis XIV and Louis XV styles. Early French Provincial pieces were considered as peasant furniture.
French RegencePopular in Europe during the early 1700's. French Regence' furniture designs have many similarities of Louis XIV furniture but definitely had its own styling. Rococo decoration is familiar in this style. Pieces from this era are very curvy and are intensely decorated. Many pieces from this period are somewhat whimsical and different. French Regence' also introduced commodes, secretaries, and chiffoniers.
French Regence (1715-23)The period between the reigns of Louis XIV and Louis XV in France.
French RenaissanceStyle dating from the mid 1400's to the early 1600's. French Renaissance spans through many rulers, Francis I, Henry II, and the most noted Henry IV. French Renaissance was mostly inspired by Italian taste but the pieces are much smaller in scale. This period is famous for its exquisite woodcarving. French Renaissance is also noted for its betterment in tapestry weaving. Early pieces are mostly manufactured of oak. Later pieces are made of walnut. Later pieces are also known to be a bit more elaborate in decoration.
French-WiredA lamp in which the power cord connects directly to the light socket, rather than being hidden in the base of the lamp.
FrequencyThe number of cycles completed per second and is measured in Hertz.
FrescoA durable painting technique for walls and ceilings, created by blending water-colors directly into wet plaster.
FretworkAn open or pierced woodcarving with an oriental influence, primarily used as a decorative element in Chippendale-style furniture.
FriezeThe central horizontal band of an entablature, found below the cornice and above the architrave.
FrogIt is a depression on the top face of a brick. It provides a recess for the mortar, which on setting forms a key and prevents the displacement of the brick above.
FrontAs applied to a building means the portion facing the street from which it has access.
Full Bed (Or Double Size)Refers to a bed for a mattress that measures 54"x75". Was once the standard or most popular size bed. Sometimes referred to as a double, full or standard. Find a mattress set.
Full Extra Long (Or Double Extra Long)A full/double mattress that measures 54"x80". Find a mattress set.
Full Grain LeatherA top-grain leather without any corrections or alterations to the natural grain pattern. Find leather furniture.
Full Spectrum LightingLight that contains all color wavelengths.
Full-Forward ArmAn arm extending continuously from the back to the front of a piece of furniture.
Full-Spectrum LightLight that contains the full range of wave-lengths that can be found in daylight, including invisible radiation (ultraviolet and infrared) at each end of the visible spectrum.
FumingA vapor deposition process in which a thin film of metal (usually silver, platinum, or gold) condenses on the surface of a hot piece of glass or clay, resulting in an iridescent surface.
FunctionA normal or characteristic action or some duty required in work. Used here to refer to anything that takes place within a given environment.
Functional FinishesSee standard finishes.
FunctionalismA form of design based on use rather than on ornamentation.
FurnaceThe mechanism that heats air or water by electricity, natural gas, coal, or oil and either blows the heated air through ducts or pumps hot water to radiators.
Fuse-Bonded CarpetCarpet yarns directly tufted into a liquid rubber or latex backing that solidifies to hold in the tufts.
Fused GlassGlass that has been heated in a kiln to the point where two separate pieces are permanently joined as one without losing their individual color.
FutonPadded mattress and quilt, which are pliable enough to be folded and stored out of sight during the day.
Futon CoverBasically a giant pillowcase that pulls over a futon mattress, that has a zipper or Velcro-type of closure. Find a futon cover.
FuzzingThe working loose of fibers to the surface of the textile.
G LampA spherical or globe-shaped bulb.
GableIt is the triangular portion of the end wall of a sloped roof formed by continuing the end wall up within the roof. Thus , the gable has two slopes with ridge in between.
Gadroon MoldingA rounded molding carved in convex curves that is used along the edges of table tops and chairs.
Gainsborough ChairA deep armchair with an upholstered seat and back, padded open arms, and carved decoration. Find a living room chair.
GalerieA covered porch on the houses of French influence.
GalleryAn intermediate floor or platform projecting from a wall of an auditorium or a hall providing extra floor area , additional seating , accomodation etc.
Gallery RailA small slender railing, usually brass, that borders a sideboard or table.
Gambrel RoofA roof line with a double pitch, flatter at the top and steeper at the bottom like a red barn.
GarageA building or portion thereof used for shelter , storage or parking of a wheeled vehicle.
Garden Wall BoundThis type of bond is suitably adopted for one brick thick wall which may act as a garden wall or a boundary wall.
GargoyleA grotesque carved figure or head. Were originally used to carry rainwater from the gutters.
GarlandAn architectural ornamentation representing foliage, flowers or fruits plaited and tied together with ribbons.
GarnettingA production process in which short cotton fibers are combed into a specific orientation and formed into layers.
GarretSame as attic.
Gate ValveThis type of valve is used to control flow of water or for completely stopping the flow of water in a pipe line.
Gateleg TableA style of drop-leaf table with leaves that are supported by extra legs that swing out like gates. Developed during the Jacobean period and was popular in Colonial America. Find dining room furniture.
Gate-Leg TableA style of drop-leaf table with leaves that are supported by extra legs that swing out like gates. Developed during the Jacobean period and popular in early America as well. Still used in many compact spaces.
GaugeThe measure of the diameter of wire used in furniture and mattress springs. The lower the gauge, the heavier/thicker the wire. Find a new mattress.
Gauged Brick ArchesGaiged bricks are those which have been accurately prepared to a wedge shape for the arch construction.
GazeboA small, open garden house.
General ContractorA builder who is licensed to construct or oversee construction of all building phases.
General LightingSee ambient lighting.
GenericA general type of man-made fiber that is significantly different from other fibers and thereby has been granted a name, such as nylon, by the Federal Trade Commission. Within each generic group are up to dozens of trademarks or trade names produced by various chemical companies.
GenuineWooden furniture construction with veneers of a particular wood, over hardwood plywood, on all the exposed parts of a piece.
Geodesic Dome System ConstructionA building system enclosing spaces with curved, triangular steel truss work. The interior structure must be independent of the dome.
Geometric DesignA classification of decorative design based on geometric shapes circles, squares, rectangles, and triangles.
Geometric PanelsDecorative panels forming or consisting of regular lines, curves and angles.
Geometrical StairThis is similar to the open-newel stair with the difference that the open well between the forward and the backward flight is curved.
GeorgianElegant design of the 1700's, which is heavier and more ornate than Queen Anne. Georgian features include elaborately carved cabriole legs, ball and claw feet, pierced back splats and ornate carving.
GessoA painted or gilded bas-relief plaster decoration.
GicleeFrench term meaning sprayed. A process by which an image is rendered digitally by spraying a fine stream of ink onto archival art paper or canvas. Similar to an airbrush technique.
Gilded GlassGlass that has been encased in a layer of gold.
GildingA coating with a thin layer of gold or gold-like substance.
GimpAn ornamental flat braid or round cord used as a trimming.
Ginger JarA bulbous oriental ceramic pot and lid, designed to hold ginger.
GingerbreadOrnate scroll-sawn wood applied to gothic-revival homes.
GinghamA fabric with a checked pattern that's created by weaving together two different colored yarns.
GirondoleTerm refers to a round, convex mirror used as a wall ornament.
GirtA heavy horizontal beam located above the posts in seventeenth-century framed homes. These beams often supported the floor joists.
GlareStrong, steady, daylight or artificial light that can cause irritation, fatigue, and heat buildup.
Glare-FreeLamps that have silvered lining.
GlassA hard, brittle material of molten silica sand and soda or potash, lime, and possibly metal oxides. Clear, transparent, or colored; used for window glazing, mirrors, walls.
Glass BlockSemihollow blocks of translucent glass primarily for non-load-bearing walls.
Glass CurtainsA historic term for sheers shirred onto a curtain rod and placed next to the glass.
Glass PartitionsThese are the partitions which are made either from the sheet glass or hollow glass blocks.
Glass TileVitrified tiles of dense glass composition. imported from France.
Glass, Architectural GlazingGlass used to fill window openings; term usually refers to nonresidential installations.
GlassblowingThe process of gathering molten glass onto the end of a blowpipe and forming it into a variety of shapes by blowing and manipulating it as the glass is rotated.
Glastonbury ChairAn X-framed Gothic seat with a sloping paneled back. Arms had a drooping curve in which a priest's vestments rested.
GlazeGlassy melted coating on a clay surface. Glaze has a similar oxide composition to glass, but includes a binder.
GlazingGlazing consists in securing glass , in prepared opening in iron , steel , masonry or wood work.
GlideThe mechanism on the bottom or sides of a drawer upon which it slides.
Globe ValveThis is the most commonly used type of valve for manually controlling or completely closing the flow of water in domestic water installation.
Gloss EnamelHard, oil-based paint that dries to a shine or gloss.
GlyphTerm refers to a short, vertical groove or channel. A common feature in Doric architecture.
GobelinA French tapestry and the name of the Parisian factory that produced it.
Goblet PleatA pinch-pleated drapery heading filled out with batting or stiff paper.
Going Of StepThe run of a step in a stair or the width of the tread between the direction of a stair.
Gold ElectroplateA process for creating gold-plated silverware.
Gold LeafExtremely thin sheets of gold used in gilding.
Golden AgeSee ancient Greece.
Golden MeanA pleasing line of division that is placed between one-half and one-third of the height or length of an object, such as tieback draperies or a chair rail.
Golden SectionA theory of pleasing proportions based On the sequence 2,3,5,8,13,2121, ad inf., where a portion or section of a line relates best to its neighbors in measurements of these or equivalent increments.
Goose NeckThis is 40 to 50 cm long flexible curved pipe made up of brass , copper or lead inserted between the ferrule and the service pipe.
Goose-Neck ArmA chair with curved wooden arms resembling a goose's neck.
GothicPieces from this period (late 1100's to early 1500's) were large with straight lines, and very heavy in weight and scale. Production often took place in monasteries and pieces were usually decorated with shapes of religious figures and detailed carving. The Gothic era introduced the Trestle table, stools, and cupboards. A famous piece of this era is the box chair. The box chair had paneled sides and back with a storage space under the seat. The dominant woods used in producing this style were primarily pine and oak.
Gothic (A.D. 1150-1550)A period and style in western Europe characterized by pointed arches and steep roofs.
Gothic ArchA pointed arch that is the principal form in Gothic architecture.
Gothic RevivalStyle influenced by Gothic and medieval influences popular in the mid-1800s, this style is characterized by lines flowing up to a pointed arch or other architectural features.
GouacheA opaque watercolor paint, or work so produced. Gouache is applied like watercolor, but reflects light due to its chalky finish.
GradationA type of rhythm wherein sizes of shapes graduate from large to small or small to large. Also seen in varying color values from dark to light or light to dark.
GradeA classification of lumber based on its aesthetic appearance.
GrainThe direction of the fibers in wood. Flat grain wood is sawed perpendicular to the growth rings. Edge grain wood has been sawed parallel to the growth rings.
Grain (Stone)The individual mineral pieces or crystals that make up a rock.
Grain (Wood)The stratification of wood fibers in a piece of wood.
Grand Rapids StyleStyle inspired by several furniture factories in Grand Rapid Michigan at the turn of the 20th Century, which is still popular today. Pieces of this design are inexpensive and usually made of oak. The most popular item of this style is the oak pedestal table stained in a light finish.
Grandfather ClockA freestanding floor clock with a pendulum inside its tower casing. Grandfather clocks normally range from six to seven feet in height. Find a grandfather clock.
GraniteIs an igneous rock with visible grains.
Graphic ArtArtwork such as posters, fashion illustrations, and book illustrations created primarily for commercial purposes bur having aesthetic merit.
Graphic ArtistA designer who specializes in two-dimensional signage, graphics, type, and design motifs or logos.
GraphicsThe visual signs in a retail space that direct customers to departments or to certain goods. Also, the term used for putting on paper the stages of space planning from bubble diagrams to the finished floor plans.
Grass ClothWoven grasses laminated to a paper backing and used as wall covering.
GrassclothA natural fiber wallpaper.
Gray Goods Or GreigeWoven fabrics in their natural fiber stare before bleaching and prefinishes. Pieces of bolt length may not be gray but a dingy off-white.
Grazing Or GrazeLight shining at a very steep angle that emphasizes the texture of the surfacc.
Grease TrapThese traps are especially designed for removing the grease content of waste water before discharging the same into the drain.
Great HallThe large, multipurpose area in the English Medieval house.
Great RoomAn open area in contemporary homes that combines the living room, family room, dining room, and perhaps the kitchen, office, and/or library.
Greek RevivalAn architectural and decorative style that drew inspiration from ancient Greek designs. It is characterized by the use of pediments and columns.
Greek Revival (1820,60)Architectural style that contained American Empire interiors.
Greek StyleDating from the 9th Century B.C. with Egyptian roots. Characterized by use of bronze animal legs, gilding, encrusted jewels and stones. Used native woods such as olive, yew and cedar. Features include sweeping curves on legs and backs, and centers on couches, chairs, stools, tables, chests and boxes. Usually not highly decorated.
Greenhouse EffectPhenomenon in which captured solar heat from long sun rays penetrates glass, and bounces off materials and furnishings, and becomes shorter, weaker, and unable to repenetrate the glass.
Greenhouse WindowProjecting glass box for growing plants.
GriffinA chimerical beast employed in decoration during the early Georgian period.
Grillage FoundationWhen heavy structural loads from columns , piers or stanchions are required to be transferred to a soil of low bearing capacity , grillage foundation is often found to be lighter and more economical.
GrilleA metal lattice work used on many 18th Century bookcases.
GrillesUsed to modify strong light or minimize an undesirable view while still providing some visual connection between the inside and outside.
GrommetAn eyelet in a piece of fabric reinforced with two pieces of affixed metal. Often found on contemporary curtain panels.
GrosgrainA strong, close-woven corded fabric usually of silk or rayon.
Ground FloorMeans the storey of the building which has its floor surface nearest to the ground around the building.
Grounding ReceiverThe third hole in an electric outlet required for fixtures and appliances that. consume a lot of power to be connected into the circuit and to prevent electric shock.
GroundmassThe main part of an igneous rock made up of finer grains in which the larger crystals are set.
GroutGrout is a thin mortar that is used to fill in space between tiles, masonry, bricks and other stones and ceramics
GueridonA small rounded topped table or stand, elaborately carved, usually with three legs. Primarily used for holding candles or small articles.
GuillocheAn ornamentation formed by two or more intertwining bands or interlacing figure "8's" frequently enclosing rosettes or other details.
GuimpeA round or flat braided trim used on upholstered furniture.
Gully TrapGully trap is a deep seal trap which is provided on the external face of the wall for disconnecting the waste water flowing from kitchen , bath , wash basin & floors from the main drainage system.
Gum ArabicA sticky substance from gum trees that is soluble in water and hardens when exposed to air, used as a vehicle for watercolor.
GunitingThis is a method to prevent the defect of dampness in the structure. This consists in depositing an impervious layer of rich cement mortar over the surface to be water proofed.
GussetA narrow panel that's shaped or gathered to give a sense of fullness, such as the side panel of a box shaped cushion for example.
Gypsum BoardSee wallboard.
Habitable RoomA room occupied or designed for occupancy by one or more persons for study , living , sleeping , eating , kitchen but not including bathroom , water closet , store , pantry , corridor etc.
Hadley ChestA colonial chest with a drawer that was used as a hope or dowry chest.
Haitian CottonA highly textured woven material with a loose, rolled cotton weft.
Half-TimberedA method of construction that uses timber frames (post and beam) for internal and external walls. Brick and plaster are normally used to fill the gaps between timbers.
Hall TreeA piece of furniture that's usually placed in an entryway or hallway to hang coats and hats on. Hall trees often have a mirror back and a table surface or storage bench seat. Find a hall tree.
HalogenA light that emits true color characteristics, unlike fluorescent and other lighting that tend to give a room a yellowish cast, halogen's light remains neutral.
Halogen LightingA type of lighting in which a tungsten filament is sealed into a compact transparent vessel and filled with a small amount of iodine or bromine to create a chemical reaction that produces light. The light from a halogen bulb is better at displaying colors than traditional incandescent or fluorescent bulbs. Often used in retail application or display cabinets.
Halving JointThis joint is used in members crossing or meeting at an angle. In this method, each member on opposite sides is cut to half of its thickness, at the joint and lapped.
HandThe feel of cloth or leather, the sensation of its textural qualities.
Hand DistressingCreating a marred surface, which lends an aged look to furniture.
Hand PrintingProcesses such as batik, tie-dye, block printing, and hand silk-screen and stencil printing.
Hand TiedCoil springs that are attached to the webbing with links and then "hand tied" to each other and the frame to achieve differing amounts of elasticity in the seat. Two, four, and eight way hand ties are commonly used.
Hand-BlockedBlock printed wallpapers have prints that are applied by someone using a wooden block. These blocks were traditionally made of pear wood. Some companies today still implement this way of making wallpaper since the look and quality of the papers are distinctive and luxurious.
Handkerchief TableTerm refers to a single leaf table with a leaf and a triangular top. Closed the table fits in a corner, opened it's a small square.
Hand-Planned FinishA distressing treatment by which a new floor or board is scraped with blades by hand to give an undulating and worn effect.
HandrailIt is provided to render assistance in negotiating a stair-way. It is supported on balustrades and usually run parallel to the slope of the stair.
Hard Window CoveringsArt glass, blinds, screens, shades, and shutters.
HardboardCompressed wood fibers formed into panels with embossed designs or a wood/plastic laminated surface.
HardwareWood, plastic, or metal-plated trim found on the exterior of furniture, such as knobs, handles, and decorative trim.
HardwoodA botanical group of trees featuring board leaves. The term does not necessarily refer to the hardness of the species.
Hardwood FramesUpholstered furniture frames made from hardwoods such as oak or birch. These woods are normally kiln dried and resist splitting.
Harmonious Color SchemeAlso called analogous, a combination focused on neighboring hues on the color wheel. The shared underlying color generally gives such schemes a coherent flow.
HarmonyA congruous combination of parts into a pleasing whole; the result of unity and variety balanced together in an orderly, agreeable arrangement.
Harvest TableA narrow rectangular table that has hinged drop leaves, this design takes up very little space and offers a nice amount of surface area when the leaves are up. Find dining furniture.
HassockUpholstered footstool large enough to be used as seating, often referred to as an ottoman. Find chairs and ottomans.
Haunch Of An ArchIt is the portion of the arch situated centrally between the key and skew backs.
Hazardous BuildingsThese shall include any building or part of building which is used for the storage , handling , manufacture or processing of highly combustible explosive materials or products which are liable to burn with extreme rapidity and which may produce poisonous fumes or explosions.
Head RoomIt is the clear vertical distance between the tread of a step and the so fit of the flight or the ceiling of a landing immediately above it and it should not be less than 2.14m.

A headboard is a vertical board or frame that is usually finished wood or upholstered, and placed at the head of the bead.

HeaderIt is a full brick or stone, which is laid with its length perpendicular to the face of the wall.
HeadingThe hemmed, stiffened, layered portion on the top of a curtain or drapery.
Heading BondIn this type of bonding , all the bricks are laid as headers on the faces. The overlap , which is usually of half the width of the brick is abstained by introducing a three
HearthThe paved or tiled floor of a fireplace.
HeartwoodThe wood that extends from the true center of the tree to the sapwood is referred to as heartwood. This wood is normally darker and more resistant to rot and decay than the sapwood.
Heat GainSolar heat that penetrates the interior through glass; desirable in winter and undesirable in summer.
Heat LossThe interior heat lost in winter back through glass to the outside. To prevent heat loss, movable insulation or insulative window treatments are employed.
Heat SettingThe setting in of permanent creases or folds in polymer fabrics by heating the fold to the point of polymer flow (beginning to melt), then rapidly cooling the fabric.
Heat Transfer PrintingMethod of printing fabrics by transferring designs to fabric from special pre-printed paper.
Heat-Transfer PrintingDecals that are dispersed-transferred from waxed paper to a cloth under heat and pressure.
Helical WireThin wire spirals that hold adjacent rows of mattress coils together and may be used to hold coils to the border rods. They can run horizontally or vertically. Not present in mattresses with individually pocketed coils. Find a new mattress.
HepplewhiteA neo-classic furniture style that followed Chippendale from the late 1700's to about 1820. It overlaps with Sheraton styles and shares similar elements of restrained design, tapered legs and classical ornamentation like urns and shields.
Hepplewhite, George (D. 1786)An important English furniture designer who produced a series of drawings published as The Cabinet-Maker and Upholsterer's Guide.
HerculonA registered trademark of Hercules for olefin.
HeterogeneousStone formed from several types of material.
HibachiAn indoor brazier used to provide warmth, boil water for tea, or warm sake. It is made in a variety of sizes and materials, especially wood and ceramic, and is filled with sand and ash. Charcoal is arranged in the center under a trivet, which supports a kettle.
Hid (High-Intensity Discharge) LightingHID lamps establish an arc between two very close electrodes set in opposite ends of small, sealed, translucent or transparent glass tubes. The electric arc generates heat and pressure high enough to vaporize the atoms of various metallic elements inside the lamp, causing the atoms to emit large amounts of visible-range electromagnetic energy.
High ContrastThe difference between small areas of light and the dark area surrounding it.
High KeyAll colors in an interior that are light or high in value.
High ReliefTerm refers to deep carving of the plane surface of any material.
High Resiliency FoamA pure foam with a cell structure different from conventional foam which results in more durable and more supportive material. This foam will retain its shape longer.
High RiseA building containing several levels or floors of apartments, condominiums, or offices.
High TechA product of high technology.
High ValuesLight variations of a hue; a hue with various amounts of white added.
HighboyA tall, narrow chest of drawers usually placed in bedrooms.
High-Contrast ValuesA wide division of color value in an interior?very light colors contrasted with very dark colors.
High-Efficiency FurnaceA furnace that uses less energy and delivers a higher output. The unit costs more initially.
High-Gloss PaintAny paint that dries to a very shiny finish.
High-Intensity DischargeProduce light by passing an electric current through a gas or vapor under high pressure.
HighlightingA color-removal technique in the finishing process, which is used to highlight natural grain characteristics.
Hiking UpThe shrinking of a fabric that has absorbed moisture, then dried.
Hinged KingA king size mattress with a divided border rod in the center to allow for slight bending or folding without causing damage. Find a mattress set.
Hip RaftersThese are the rafters which form the hip of a sloped roof. These rafters run from the ridge to the corners of the wall to support the covering over the hip.
Hipped RoofA roof without a gabled end that slopes in four directions.
HispanicHaving to do with Spain or Portugal.
Hitchcock ChairA black-painted/finished chair of the 1800's with gold powdered stenciling of fruit and flowers on the backrest, named after its designer Lambert Hitchcock. Heavily influenced by Sheraton designs. Web site of the Hitchcock Chair Company.
Hitchcock StyleStyle created by Lambert Hitchcock of Connecticut from the early to mid 1800's. Although most famous for the design of Hitchcock chairs, Lambert also produced stools, settees, rockers, cabinets and cradles. The Hitchcock chair is still reproduced to this day.
Hitchcock, Lambert (1795-1852)An American furniture designer known best for his Hitchcock chair with its black painted finish, stenciling, rush or cane seat, and delicate lines.
Hock LegA cabriole leg having a broken curve on the inner side of the knee.
Hoffmann, Josef (1870-1956)Member of the Vienna Secession and founding member of the Wiener Werkstite. He is best known for his design of the Prague chair and Fledermaus chair.
HollofilA registered trademark of DuPont for polyester.
Hollow-Core DoorA veneered door with a hollow core filled with cardboard honeycomb.
HologramA three-dimensional image projected by splitting a laser beam.
Home AutomationCentral control of all energy-using fixtures and devices.
HomogeneousStone formed from just one material.
HoodThe canopy overhanging a fireplace to increase the draft.
Hooded FireplaceA fireplace with a projecting hood to catch the smoke.
Hook-And-Loop FastenersA two-part fastening system of nylon loops on one tape and a fuzzy nylon surface on another that stick together and can be pulled apart. The best-known brand is Velcro.
Hooked RugsA traditional method of making decorative rugs of strips of fabric, punched through a jutelike backing with a special hook.
Hoop Back ChairHepplewhite or Queen Anne chair with a top rail curving directly into its arms.
Hope ChestTraditionally a hinged-top chest for storing items such as household goods and textile items in anticipation of marriage. Also referred to as a dowry chest. Find a hope chest.
Horizontal LinesHorizontal lines serve to visually widen or lengthen an interior and, when dominant, produce feelings of relaxation and repose.
Horizontal SatinSee sateen.
HourglassA piece for telling time with two globes of glass connected by a narrow neck that allows a quantity of sand to pass during a specified time.
Housed JointIn this joint , the entire end or thickness of one member is let into the notch in another. This is commonly used in works of heavy nature.
Housed StairA stair attached to walls on both sides. Also called a closed stair.
HueThe pure state of any color.
HumidifierAn attachment to a furnace that adds moisture or humidity to the air. (Heating interior air strips it of moisture.)
HuntboardDesigned to be light and portable so it could be moved outdoors. Originally used for serving food and drinks after a hunt.
HutchEnclosed cupboard with shelves resting on a solid base such as buffet or desk. Find dining room furniture.
HvacHeating, ventilation, and air-conditioning. In nonresidential architecture, it is the system that maintains an even temperature (around 72 degrees Fahrenheit) and circulates fresh air through the interior.
Hybrid Solar Energy SystemA passive solar system augmented with fans, ducts, blowers, or other mechanical devices.
HydrophilicA fiber that readily absorbs moisture, such as natural and man-made cellulosics and natural protein fibers.
IbdThe Institute of Business Designers.
IdcThe Interior Designers of Canada.
IdecThe Interior Design Educators Council.
IdsThe Interior Design Society.
IfdaThe International Furnishings and Design Association (formerly the National Home Fashions League).
IfiThe international Federation of Interior Architects/Designers.
IgneousRocks which have solidified from a molten state.
IkebanaTraditional Japanese method of arranging flowers according to strict rules of placement.
IlfochromeA trademarked photographic paper and the process of making prints with such paper. Ilfochrome prints are produced from slides or transparencies, not color negatives.
IlluminanceThe density of luminous flux incident of a surface in lumens per unit area.
Illusion LightingThe artistic science of creating illusion through specialty
ImbricationsOrnamentation in the form of fish scales or the segmented edge of tiles that overlap.
Impact NoiseSound resulting from direct contact of an object with a sound barrier, can occur on any surface, but it generally occurs on a floor and ceiling assembly.
ImpastoA thick, uneven surface texture achieved by applying paint with a brush or palette knife.
IncalmoThe glassblowing technique used to create horizontal or vertical bands of color by forming and connecting cylinders or colored glass.
IncandescentThe most commonly used household bulb, which emits light through a wire filament.
Incandescent LightingA type of lighting in which an electric current is passed through a thin filament, heating it to a temperature that produces light. The enclosing glass bulb contains either a vacuum or an inert gas to prevent oxidation of the filament. Incandescent bulbs are inexpensive and create good natural light and color renderings,but use more energy and generate more heat than fluorescent bulbs.
Incident Solar RadiationThe energy collected from the sun to power active solar panels/systems. Also called insolation.
InclusionsParticles of metal, bubbles, etc., that occurs within glass or is added for decorative effect.
Independent LivingElderly or handicapped persons who are able to live at home and care for themselves because the space is planned to accommodate their needs.
Indirect And Isolated Passive Solar GainSolar gain from a source other than the occupied space. Examples include greenhouses or solariums that can be closed off from the living or nonresidential space.
Indirect LightingA more subdued type of lighting that is not head-on, but rather reflected against another surface such as a ceiling.
Industrial BuildingThese shall include any building or part of a building or structure , in which products or materials of all kinds and properties are fabricated , assembled or processed for example refineries , mills , dairies , industries etc.
InfillMaterials used to fill the space between the timber frame of a building.
Informal AreasAreas for relaxed, spontaneous living, and entertaining.
Informal BalanceAlso known as asymmetrical, optical, or occult balance, it is the state of equilibrium reached through the arrangement of unlike objects or parts on each side of a central point.
InglenookA recess for a bench seat or two next to a fireplace. Popular in Shingle style and Craftsman homes.
IngressThe entrance to a building.
In-House DesignerAn interior designer who is a salaried staff member of a large organization; responsible for the interior design or facilities management of new and existing buildings owned by that organization.
Initial Load Deflection (Ild)A measure for the firmness level of foam used in upholstered furniture and mattresses.
Inlaid VinylFlooring in which successive layers of vinyl granules are built up to suggest texture.
InlayA decorating technique in which an object is incised with a design, a colorant is pressed into the incisions, and the surface is then scraped to confine the colored inlay to the incisions.
Inner QuiltA true pillow top mattress will have an inner quilt, which means that the first layers of upholstery are actually covered with a layer of fabric that is sewn to the tape edge of the mattress. Some so called pillow tops do not have inner quilts. These imitation pillow tops have border panels around the perimeter with two tape edges to give the appearance of a pillow top. Find a mattress.
Inner TuftingA very durable method of attaching and combining layers of padding below the quilted cover of a mattress to prevent shifting and settling of the padding layers. This method is rarely used in mass-produced mattresses due to the labor intensive process. Find a mattress.
Innerspring UnitThe spring and wire units made up primarily of coils, helical wires and border wires, which is the inside of an innerspring mattress. Some upholstered furniture such as sofas and loveseats can also feature innerspring units.
Inset TileA tile with a different design than the surrounding body of tiles.
InsolationSee incident solar radiation.
Institutional BuildingThese shall include any building or part thereof which is used for purposes such as medical or other treatment or care of persons suffering from physical or mental illness or disease. These buildings ordinarily provide sleeping accomodation for the occupants. It includes hospitals, sanatoria , orphanages , prisons , reformatories.
InsulationA material such as fiberglass that prevents heat transfer. Commonly used in batts (fiber blanket rolls), rigid panels, styrofoam beads, or other materials.
Insulation Of SoundIt is the control of noise transmission which is essential to minimise the disturbing effect of sound passing from one room to another through walls , partitions and floors or ceilings.
Insulative Window TreatmentsAny window covering that deters heat loss and solar gain.
InsulatorA mattress component that separates and protects the mattress cushioning from its innerspring coils. Common insulators consist of a compressed polyester fiber pad, compressed cotton, or a polypropylene mesh screen. Find a mattress.
IntaglioA printmaking process in which an image is created from ink held in the incised or bitten areas of a metal plate, below the surface plane. Engraving, etching, mezzotint, and aquatint are examples of the intaglio process.
IntarsiaAn Italian type of decoration that's similar to inlay and marquetry, where the design is sunk into the wood.
Integral Damp-ProofingThis consists in adding certain water-proofing compounds with the concrete mix to increase its impermeability.
IntensityThe relative pureness or brightness of a color, as opposed to the dullness or neutralization of that hue. Also called chroma.
Intercepting TrapThis trap is provided at the junction of house drain (inspection chamber) and street sewer to prevent entry of foul gases from sewer into the house drain. This trap is thus provided to disconnect the house drain from the street sewer.
IntercomAn electrical system That allows people to communicate within a building; also carries taped or radio music heard through speakers.
InterfaceInterdependency of design phases that must be accomplished simultaneously or consecutively. Also, a computer term in which different terminals can access the same information through a central mainframe computer or a networking system.
Interior ArchitectureThe nonresidential aspect of interior design that may entail remodeling and work with building Systems.
Interior Building SystemsThe systems that are a part of the interior
Intermediate HuesSix hues on the standard color wheel that are produced by mixing a primary and secondary color. They are yellow-orange, red-orange, red-violet, blue-violet, blue-green, and yellow-green. Also known as tertiary hues.
International StyleFunctional modern furniture style developed in Europe during the 1920's and 1930's. The most important origin of this style was Germany's Bauhaus School. Simple lines and an absence of decoration are hallmarks of this design. Popular materials used included chrome and glass.
Interrelationship Of FunctionsThe way areas work together or depend on one another to function effectively.
IntradosAlso known as so fit , it is the under-surface of an arch.

Igneous rock formed by the cooling of magma inside the earth's crust.

Inverted Arch FootingThis type of foundation used to be provided for multistoried buildings in olden times. It is rarely done these days.
IonicOf the architectural orders, the Ionic column is recognized by its scrolling capital.
Iridized GlassFlat or blown glass sprayed with a vapor deposit of metal oxides for an iridescent finish. The iridized layer, which resembles an oil slick, can be selectively removed for a two-tone effect.
Iris PrintThe trademarked name for a digital print produced by an Iris Graphics inkjet printer.
IronA heavy black metal.
Iron BedTerm commonly used to describe beds made of metal that are coated with colored finishes. Find an iron bed.
Italian FinishingBed linen finishing technique developed in Italy, where luxury single ply yarns are treated individually to remove fibers and smooth the surface. This special finishing then compresses the fabric, reduces shrinkage that imparts a smooth lightweight feel to sheets.
Italian ProvincialLoose term applied to furniture of the Italian provinces made during the 1700's to mid 1800's. These pieces, although more rustic, copied the elaborate furniture styles of Milan, Venice, Rome and Florence. Later pieces (Late Italian Provincial) were heavily influenced by French design. The pieces feature simplified lines and lack ornate decorations. Very few of these pieces are reproduced today.
Italian RenaissancePopular through the 1400's to 1600's. Italian Renaissance furniture features a very rich appearance and is decorated with carving, inlay, and marquetry. Chairs have a very straight construction and are built with flat runners. Chairs usually have very sturdy stretchers. Tables are very big and elaborately decorated. Tables have stretchers and are rectangular in shape. Most pieces are made of walnut.
Itten, Johannes (1888-1967)A colorist who taught at the Bauhaus in Germany and at Yale University. He authored several books, including The Art of Color and The Elements of Color.
JabotThe side portion of a window treatment where fabric is draped vertically in soft folds on either side of a valance.
Jack Arch LintelA trapezoidal lintel with a wedge-shaped keystone used as decoration above windows. Also called a crown lintel.
JacobeanThis furniture period spans almost the entire first half of the 17th Century from James I to Charles I reign. Many furniture specialists claim that all furniture of the 17th Century is influenced and encompassed by this design. Pieces are large, square or rectangular. Carving is intricate and done in a tasteful low relief style. Seats of chairs are flat and stretchers sit low on the frame. Stretchers are usually rectangular and show up on most tables and chairs. Oak is the dominant wood.
JacquardIntricate fabrics such as tapestries, brocades and damasks whose patterns are woven with yarns of different colors.
Jalousie WindowA louvered glass window.
JambDoor frame is made up of two vertical members known as Jambs.
Japanese StyleJapanese domestic usage required little furniture. Chests and cupboards were built in with sliding doors. Usually finished with highly polished lacquer flecked with gold and decorated with fine-scaled flower, animal and landscape motives. Thin mats made of rice straw covered the floors and were used for sitting. Cloth cushions were also used, as were small tables of wood and lacquer. The folding screen was an indispensable adjunct to the other furnishings as it could be moved to change the entire aspect of the room. Japanese furniture forms have changed very little for centuries.
Jeanneret-Gris, Charles-Edouard (1887-1965)Important architect/designer better known as Lc Corbusier. Designer of several modern classic furniture pieces.
JewellingOrnamental carving in the shape of jewels. Very popular during the Renaissance period.
Jewelry ArmoireA small and narrow upright chest for the storage of jewelry and fashion accessories. Find a jewelry armoire.
Joggie JointThis type of joint is commonly used for framing the studs into the sill of a wooden partition wall.
JointThe junction of two or more bricks or stones is called a joint.
JoistOne of the series of parallel beams used to support floor and ceiling loads.
JoistsThe heavy beams that support the floor and rafters.
Journal Of Interior DesignThe scholarly, refereed journal of the Interior Design Educators Council.
JuteA cellulosic bast fiber obtained from the inner stalks of the jute plant and grown in India. Its main interior use is as carpet hacking.
JuxtapositionPlacement of colors next to each other.
Kandinsky, Wassily (1886-1944)A Russian artist associated with the Bauhaus.
KanekalonA registered trademark of Kanekafuchi for modacrylic.
KaolinA claylike substance used in making porcelain. The name comes from Kao-ling, a mountain in China where kaolin was first mined.
Key StoneIt is the highest central wedge shaped block of an arch.
KeystoneThe stone at the top of an arch that is angled on the sides, stabilizing compression and friction.
Kilim RugsFlat tapestry folk rugs that originated in Romania.

A furnace for firing clay, forming glass, or melting enamels; studio kilns can achieve temperatures up to 2500°F and can be fueled with gas, wood, or electricity.

Kiln-DriedWood that has been dried using controlled heat and humidity in kilns or ovens to specific ranges of moisture content. This helps to prevent cracking, warping,and shrinkage of the finished wood.
Kiln-FormingA glass-forming process that utilizes a kiln to heat glass in a refractory or heat-resistant mold, slump glass over a form, or fuse two or more pieces of glass together.
KineticActive. Kinetic sculpture has parts that move, whether by air currents (as with a mobile) or by motors and gears.
King CloserIt is a brick which is cut in such a way that the width of one of its end is half that of a full brick. It is formed by cutting off the triangular piece , between the centre of one end and the centre of one side.
King Post Roof TrussIt is a form of roof truss which is commonly used for spans varying from 5m to 9m.
KitschA German term that describes bad taste and is applied to pretentious or foolish art.
KnickknackA small ornamental article.
Knife-EdgeA sewing technique found on decorative cushions using a single seam or welt around the cushions perimeter.
Knitted CarpetA sturdy pile carpet that is constructed by knitting with multiple needles.
Knitted FabricsNeedle-constructed interlocking fabrics such as single and double knits, laces, rachel warp knits, arnache and malimo fabrics. Knitted fabrics offer speed of construction, variety in patterns, and lacy effects, and either stretch or dimensional stability characteristics.
Knock-DownFurniture that is sold unassembled or partially assembled.
KnotThe portion of wood that displays an area of growth around a tree branch.
KnotsThe knot of the rug is the underside of the pile. The more knots per rug, the tighter and lower the pile will be.
KnottingKnots exude resin. Knotting is the process of sealing the knots by suitable means so that the resin from the knots may not destroy the paint film by way of cracking, peeling or brown discoloration.
KodelA registered trademark of Eastman Kodak for polyester.
LacquerA type of varnish made from shellac or gum resins dissolved in ethyl alcohol or other quick-drying solvents.
Ladder-Back ChairA chair back with a number of horizontal slats like a ladder.
LaminatedComposed of layers bonded together for strength, thickness, or decorative effect.
Laminated FoamOne or more densities of polyurethane foam laminated together to form a single pad.
LaminationThe process of building up in layers or attaching a single ply as with plywood, foam, or plastic laminates.
LampThe technical term for light bulb.
LampworkThe technique of manipulating glass by heating it with a small flame. An open flame is advantageous in very detailed work.
LancetA narrow window with a sharp, pointed arch, commonly associated with gothic revival architecture.
LandingA platform or resting place provided between two flights. A landing extending right across a staircase is termed as half space landing and the one extending only half across a staircase is called a quarter
LandingsThe platforms of a stair where it begins, ends, or turns.
LaneseA registered trademark of Celanese for acetate and polyester.
Lapping JointThis is the simplest form of lengthening joint and is formed by lapping the end of one member over that of the other and fastening them together by bolting or using connections.
LaserA device containing a crystal, gas, or other suitable substance in which atoms, when stimulated by focused light waves, amplify and concentrate these waves, then emit them in a very intense, narrow beam.
Late Georgian (1750-90)The American period that utilized English Georgian design and Chippendale furniture.
LatexA rubber-based synthetic polymer extruded or sprayed on as a coating or backing to hold woven fabrics or tufted carpets stable.
Latex PaintA water-based paint that is easy to apply and cleans up with soap and water when still wet.
LathThin strips of wood laid parallel and nailed onto building studs. Historic method of plastering walls is to apply it over lath.
LathworkGrids or panels made with strips of lath, used as screens, trellises, or decorative trim on verandas.
LatillasSticks laid across the vigas to form the ceiling of the Southwest Adobe houses.
Latin CrossThe Western Christian cross with a tail longer than the top and arms.
LatticeA panel consisting of metal or wooden strips that are interlaced or crossed to form a grid with regular spaces.
Law Of Chromatic DistributionA rule governing the distribution of color intensity or brightness. The most neutralized colors are used in the largest areas, and the smaller the size or area, the brighter or more intense the chroma proportionately becomes.
Layered Or Compounded FabricsA group of fabric constructions that require more than one step to complete. Examples include embroidery, appliqu?, and tufting.
Lazy SusanA shelf that rotates 360 degrees.
Le CorbusierSee J eanneret-Gris, Charles-Edouard.
Leaded GlassGlass containing a percentage of lead oxide, which increases its density and improves its ability to refract and disperse light. Leaded glass is used for ornaments and for decorative and luxury tableware.
Lean To RoofThis is the simplest type of pitched roof consisting of rafters sloping on one side only.
LeatherThe tanned hide of cattle or swine, largely used for upholstery. Leather is strong, is comfortable, and has a long life span.
Leather TilesActual pieces of leather cut into shapes and applied as wall or floor tiles. Resilient semi-permanent material.
L'ecole Des Beaux ArtsA school of art, design, and architecture in Paris, France, noted for its emphasis on historical studies.
LedLED stands for Light Emitting Diodes. LED lighting is an energy efficient type of lighting that lasts longer then other types of lighting. They have a low light output so it may not work for all applications.
Lengthening JointThese joints are used to lengthen a wooden member. The method of lengthening the member varies with its situation in a framed structure.
Leno WeaveA variation of the plain weave that has warp thread in hourglass twists where the weft or filling threads are woven in.
Letter Of AgreementThe legal contractual arrangement between the design firm and the client that spells Out responsibilities and services of both parties.
Level-Loop CarpetWoven or tufted carpet with an uncut pile of even loops; used in both residential and nonresidential interiors.
Level-Tip Shear CarpetWoven or tufted carpet with some loops higher than others. Surface has a smooth, velvetlike texture.
Life-StyleThe way an individual or group lives.
LightAn element of design that is broken into two types
Light PipeAn acrylic pipe that conducts light along its corridor. The light source can be sunlight or artificial light.
Lighting As ArtUse of light as a medium to create artistic effects.
Lighting PlanThe portion of the working drawings or blueprints that shows where the lights, switches, and outlets are to be placed in a building and how they are connected to one another and to the circuit-breaker box. Also called the wiring plan.
Lime PlasterLime used in plastering may be fat lime or hydraulic lime. Fat limes make best plaster as they yield good putty after shaking. Hydraulic lime on the other hand yields harder and stronger plaster.
Limited EditionArtworks produced in a deliberately limited quantity. All items in the edition are identical and each one is an original work of art. The limited size of the edition enhances the value of each piece.
LineAn object or form whose actual or visual length greatly exceeds any actual width or depth it many have.
Line Of CreditThe total cost of merchandise that may be purchased by a designer on credit on behalf of the designer's clients.
Line Of NosingIt is an imaginary line touching the nosing of each tread and is parallel to the slope of the stair.
Line Or Outline LightingLighting the perimeter of an object to give emphasis or even lighting.
LinenThe best known of the cellulosic bast fibers, obtained from the inner stalks of the flax plant. Linen is strong and absorbent and varies from a coarse jutelike texture to fine table damask linen textures.
LinenfoldA medieval panel motif resembling folded linen.
LinocutA relief print process similar to woodcut. Wood blocks covered with a layer of linoleum are carved with woodcut tools, coated with ink, and printed by hand or in a press.
LinoleumA soft resilient flooring of ground wood and cork, gum, color pigments, and oxidized linseed oil. No longer produced.
Linoleum FlooringLinoleum is a covering laid over wooden or concrete floors in order to hide the defects of flooring or to enhance its appearance.
Linseed OilThis is extensively used as a vehicle in oil paints. It is obtained by pressing crushed flax seeds. The drying of the oil takes place due to its oxidation when exposed to air.
LintelThe support to the load above the opening is usually given by providing an arch or a lintel. Lintel acts like a beam and transfers the load vertically to the supporting walls.
List PriceGenerally accepted to be the same as suggested retail price a price to the consumer.
LithographsPrints made from a stone or metal plate to which the pattern or design has been applied with a special grease pencil or wax.
LithographyA planographic printmaking process based on the repellence of oil and water and characterized by soft lines and blurry shapes.
LithoponeThis pigment is obtained from the precipitate formed by mixing equal quantities of the solutions of barium sulphate and zinc sulphate under carefully controlled conditions.
LoftAn intermediary floor space created by introduction of a slab between floor and ceiling of a room , passage or wherever it is provided with maximum clear height of 1.5m for storage purposes only.
LofturaA registered trademark of Eastman Kodak for acetate.
Long, Formal CurtainsHaving a shirred or tabbed heading, these long curtains can be hand operable or stationary.
Long-Life BulbAn incandescent bulb that lasts from 2,500 to 3,500 hours.
Loop PileA loop pile is when the ends of the pile are finished loops
Loose CushionsPillows that are part of an upholstered piece but left unattached in the upholstery process.
Loose KnotA knot in timber that is not sound and may end up becoming dislodged over time.
Louis Xv Period (1723-74)The period during the reign of King Louis XV of France. Also known as the Rococo period and characterized by ornate, curvilinear, asymmetrical design.
Louis Xvi Period (1774-93)The period during the reign of King Louis XVI of France. Also known as the French Neoclassic period and characterized by rectilinear, classically inspired design.
Louvered DoorDoor with louvered panels.
LouversHorizontal slats in a shutter, screen, or window, sloped downward (or movable) to control light and air passage.
LoveseatA loveseat is a small version of a sofa made for two people. "ON CENTER" MEASUREMENT: Usually used for lighting or electrical components, this dimension is taken from center to center of the electrical box or outlet.
Low ContrastThe difference between colors whose values (lightness vs. darkness) are very close?such as all light colors or all dark colors.
Low KeyA color scheme in a variety of dark values.
Low ValueHues that have been darkened.
LowboyA low chest of drawers raised on legs, used as a dressing or serving table. With the addition of a tall chest, it becomes a highboy.
Low-Contrast ValuesValues near each other, such as dark and medium values or medium and light values, for example.
Low-Fire GlazesGlazes  Low-temperature ceramic glazes, usually associated with bright, shiny colors.
Low-Voltage LampsBulbs that consume little energy.
Lumbar PillowA small rectangular pillow designed to support the lower back. Often used on armchairs and sofas.
LumberTimber of logs dressed for use.
Lumber-Core DoorSame as solid-core door.
LumenIs the unit of luminous flux equal to the flux in a unit solid angle of one steradian from a uniform point source of one candlepower.
LumensA measurement of the amount of light flow.
LuminaireA complete lighting fixture with all components needed to be connected to the electric power supply.
Luminous CeilingIncandescent or fluorescent lights around which a box is framed and finished, with the cover over the lights made of translucent glass or plastic.
Luminous PanelsFluorescent or incandescent lights set into a wall or floor and covered with translucent glass or plastic.
LusterA brilliant iridescent film used on a ceramic glazes; formed from metallic salts.
Luxury HomesSpacious or luxurious homes with high-quality detail, cabinet work, and furnishings.
Mackintosh, Charles Rennie (1868-1928)Scottish designer/architect, influential with the Vienna Secessionists and designer of the Hill chair.
MagmaLiquid or molten rock material, it is called lava when it reaches the earth's surface.
Mainframe ComputerA large computer into which smaller computer terminals or personal computers can be accessed. Mainframes can handle complex data, problems, and CAD with speed and accuracy.
MaintenanceThe labor required to maintain a material?tasks such as sweeping, vacuuming, dusting, mopping, scrubbing, or waxing.
MajolicaAn opaque glaze, usually white, with a glossy surface. Typically decorated with bright overglaze stains.
ManholeThese are the masonry chambers provided at suitable location and on the line of the sewer for the purposes of inspection and cleaning the sewers.
Man-Made FibersChemically derived and extruded from a viscose solution.
Mansard RoofA hipped roof with two pitches. The bottom pitch is very steep and the top pitch flatter, so it is usually not seen from the ground.
Mansard TrussThis truss is now rarely constructed. This truss has two pitches , the lower varying from 60 degrees to 70 degrees and the upper from 30 degrees to 40 degrees. This truss is more or less a combination of king post and queen post trusses.
MantelThe projecting shelf of a chimneypiece.
MarbleA very hard stone cut into slabs and polished for floor and wall materials. Smooth and formal, white or colored with streaks of color.
MarblingImitating polished marble stone with paint.
MarketIn reference to designer resources, a term that many interior designers use to mean they are going to visit one of the annual shows held at the marts.
Market CentersConcentrations of trade sources in one area of a city.
Markets, Marketing CentersConvenient clusters of trade sources that market goods and services wholesale to interior designers.
Marlborough LegA straight, square furniture leg with a square foot.
MarquetryDecorative patterns formed when thin layers of wood (and sometimes other materials, such as ivory) are inlaid into the surface of furniture or other wood products.
MartsWhere many firms have located in one building.
MarvessA registered trademark of Phillips for olefin.
Masonry Block ConstructionWalls or foundations of cinder block or concrete block without any wooden framework.
MassAn element of design that denotes density or visual weight within an object. Heavier mass or density will often make an object appear larger than one that has little mass or empty space within its shape.
MassingGathering or forming into a mass. The pulling of objects into a group so that together they have more visual weight or importance than they do separately.
Master Of Arts Degree (M.F.A.)A degree that may be considered a terminal degree in interior design education.
Master Of Fine Arts Degree (M.F.A.)A degree that may be considered a terminal degree in interior design education. M.F.A. degrees require a fine arts skill and showing of work. It is considered the design education equivalent of a doctor of philosophy (Ph.D.) degree.
Master Of Science Degree (M.S.)A degree that may be considered a terminal degree in interior design education.
MastersThose whose art has passed the test of time to become classic.
MatA border of mat board or other material, used as famine or part of the frame of a picture.
MatchThe some color from one dye lot to another.
Materials And Finishes BoardsBoards used to Show pieces of the materials and finishes that have been selected for a design.
MatteMatte is a type of finish that has little to no shine or gloss to it. It is commonly used in paints and wood finishes. It is a popular paint finish for ceilings because it has little reflection, and since a matte finish is easily stained, it is good to use in an inaccessible place like a ceiling.
Matte PaintAny paint that dries to a flat, nonshiny finish.
Measurement Of CementCement should always be measured by weight and not by volume.
Measurement Of Coarse AggregatesCoarse aggregate may be measured either by volume (litres) or by weight. In case of wet aggregate , allowance for surface water should be made while determining the quantity of water to be used in the mix.
Measurement Of Fine AggregatesFine aggregates i.e. sand is normally measured by volume in case of ordinary works whereas in case of all important projects , it is measured by weight.
Measurement Of WaterWater may be measured by weight or by volume.
Mechanical FinishesA classification of decorative finishes that include calendering, napping, and flocking. Also called surface treatment finishes.
Mechanics LienA legal recourse related to the labor and materials payment bond. It is an action that prevents the owner of the property of giving or selling the property to anyone until the lien is satisfied.
MediaThe substances used to dilute paint-water for watercolor and turpentine for oil paint. Also the means or methods an artist uses to produce a work.
Medieval Era (A.D. 8004500)The Middle Ages or Medieval era in Europe was a time of poverty for the masses but in architecture was a period of great cathedral building and colorful stained glass windows.
MelamineA synthetic compound used to make plastic laminates.
MementosRemembrances or souvenirs of a person, a place, or an event.
MemorabiliaThings and events worthy of remembrance.
Mercantile BuildingsThese shall include any building or part of a building which is used as shops, stores , market , for display and sale of merchandise either wholesale or retail.
MercerizationA process of treating natural cellulosic fibers (cotton and linen), with caustic soda to enlarge and make the fibers more uniform, increase the luster, and better accept and hold dyes.
MerchantAnyone who is involved with the buying and/or selling of the kinds of goods with which he or she is dealing. A person acting in a mercantile capacity.
MetalAluminum, tin, brass, stainless steel, and other chemical compounds that are formed into strips, tiles, or sheers for use as wall, ceiling, and furniture materials.
Metal BlindsOriginally known as venetian blinds, metal blinds provide the look of two-inch wood blinds at less cost and with less stacking space required.
Metal Or Space Frame SystemStrong, lightweight steel skeleton framework based on the forms of geometry.
Metameric ShiftColors appearing different under different lighting due to the spectral energy distribution in the materials.
MetamerismThe effect of light on color that causes a color to appear differently in different types of light.
MetamorphicRocks which changed from another rock by the action of heat, pressure, or both.
MetopeThe space between the triglyphs on the frieze of the Doric entablature.
Mexican TileClay tile fired at low temperatures. Natural terra-cotta color or hand-painted in bright colors, glazed and unfired.
Mezzanine FloorAn intermediate floor between two floor levels aqbove ground floor and at least one side of it should form an integral part of space floor /below.
MezzotintAn intaglio printing process that produces areas of tone rather than clean lines.
Mid-Century ModernA decorative style first popularized in the late 1940s characterized by clean lines, the use of modern materials such as plastic and aluminum, and a sleek, minimal profile. The style reached its apex in the late 1950s and early 1960s, but continued to be popular into the early 1970s. In the past few years the style has enjoyed a resurgence in popularity with several books, websites,and contemporary knockoffs.
Middle AgesSee Medieval era.
Mies Van Der Rohe, Ludwig (1886-1969)An important architect/designer associated with the Bauhaus. Designer of several modern classic furniture pieces.
MillworkMillwork is essentially anything created in a mill. Decorative wood panels, moldings, cabinet doors, wainscots, stair banisters and many other wood items and details are considered millwork. Because so many new building materials are being used for these items besides wood, the category of millwork has come to include these items as well.
MingChinese dynasty that ruled form 1368 to 1644 and was noted for artistic works produced during its reign.
MiniblindsOne-inch wide, concave metal slats held together with nylon cord. Slats or louvers are adjustable and are excellent for light and glare control.
Mini-Mainframe ComputerA computer about the size of a personal computer but with greater capacity and power somewhat similar to a mainframe computer.
MirrorGlass with the back coated with silver or a silver amalgam (compound) to give the surface a reflecting quality; used on walls, ceilings.
Mission StatementA philosophical statement of what the firm sees as its role in the profession. It contains broad statements of what the company wishes to achieve during an unspecified time period.
Mission StyleStyle that features oak furniture of rectilinear design; popular in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Gustav stickley was a great exponent of the style, which is named for and resembles handmade furniture from the early California Spanish missions.
MiterTo cut at a forty-five-degree angle. A joint where two diagonally cut pieces meet at right angles and are nailed or screwed together.
MitreIt may be defined as a cut formed at the required corner by cutting the corner of the sheet for a length of 15cm or the length of the end lap whichever is more along the vertical edge and for a width equal to the width of one corrugation along the horizontal edge of the sheet.
Mobile HomeA house trailer for temporary or permanent housing.
Mobile Home ParkAn area where only mobile homes are placed.
ModacrylicA synthetic long-chain polymer fiber consisting of 35 to 85 percent acrylonitrile units. It is a soft, buoyant fabric that is inherently flame resistant and used extensively for nonresidential draperies where fire codes must be met.
ModillionOrnamental bracket found under a cornice, similar in appearance to dentil, only larger.
ModularUnits of a standard size, such as pieces of a cabinet or wall system, that can be fitted together
MoldingA strip of contoured wood applied to a wall or other surface, normally used to hide seams between materials or to add a decorative element to a wall or structure.
MonitorThe computer hardware screen component.
MonochromaticA color scheme built around one hue,with several of its shades and tints.
MonoprintA print produced by painting directly onto an already-etched surface and printing the image by hand onto the paper.
MonotypeA print made when an artist draws or paints on a glass or metal plate and then prints the image onto paper.
Mood LightingLow-level lighting that creates an ambience or mood that is cozy or inviting.
MoorA Moslem of mixed Berber (North-African) and Arab ancestry.
Moroccan RugsHandmade pile rugs from North Africa that have geometric patterns and are coarsely woven.
Morris, William (1834-96)A designer of the Arts and Crafts movement who produced wall-paper, furniture, tapestries, carpets, stained glass windows, and accessories.
MortarIt is usually a mixture of cement and sand or lime and sand , or a mixture of three. It not only acts as a cementing material but also imparts strength to the work by holding the individual bricks together to act as a homogeneous mass.
MortiseA carved slot in a timber shaped to receive a tenon placed at the end of another post or beam, ensuring to secure it.
Mortise And TenonA joint that utilizes a square hole carved in one of the pieces Being joined and a projection that fits the hole in the other.
Mortise-And-Tenon JoineryA joint in which a hole (mortise) is cut into one piece of wood to receive a pro-jecting piece (tenon) cut into another.
MosaicThe process of creating a design or picture with small pieces of glass, stone, terra cotta, etc.
Mosaic TileSmall tiles fitted together with grout to form a pattern in floors, walls, and countertops.
MothproofingA finish that renders a fabric, especially wool, unpalatable to moths and other destructive insects.
MotifA motif is the subject or design pattern on a decorative object like fabrics, paintings or accessories. For example, if your child likes cowboys, you may look for a fabric with a cowboy or western motif.
Motivational LightingA lighting specialty that utilizes brightness, dullness, and darkness to motivate people to behave in a certain manner. It utilizes principles of psychology as well.
Motorized RodsDrapery rods that are electronically operable. Used for large or hard-to-reach installations.
Movable InsulationInterior or exterior insulation that protects against excessive heat loss or solar gain.
Movable Louver ShuttersWooden shutters with slats or blades that can be adjusted.
Mud PlasteringThis type of plastering is commonly seen in kuccha construction in villages and in other structures of temporary character. This is the cheapest form of plastering.
MullionIt is the central member usually used in the revolving doors, which is attached with ball
Multilevel LivingHousing that contains one or more changes of planes in addition to the main floor an upstairs, downstairs, or step-down or step-up areas.
Multilevel-Loop Pile CarpetA looped pile carpet with various levels woven or tufted to create texture or a pattern.
Multiuse AreasRooms or areas with more than one purpose or function.
MumtiA structure with a covering roof over a staircase and its landing built to enclose only the stairs for the purpose of providing protection from weather and not used for human habitation.
Munsell TheoryBased on three attributes?hue, value, and chroma-where exact color matching is possible through a notation system.
Munsell, Albert H. (1858-1918)American colorist whose system, based on hue, value, and chroma notation, is widely used in design.
MuntinA strip of wood that separates panes of glass in a window.
MuralsWallpapers hung in sequence to depict a scene. Also, a large-scale wall painting.
Murphy BedA bed that folds into the wall or a closet when not in use.
MurriniA small wafer of glass bearing a colored pattern. Formed by bundling and fusing colored glass rods together and then heating and pulling the resulting cylinder to a very small diameter. When cut into cross-sectioned wafers, each piece bears the original pattern in miniature.
Nahani TrapTrap provided in floors to collect used water from floors of bathroom , kitchen or washing floor etc. are known as Nahani traps.
NapThe fuzzy surface of a fabric formed by short hairs or fibers.
NasadThe National Association of Schools of Art and Design.
NaturalA wood finish without any added color or stain.
Natural Fiber RugsAnimal skins, berber rugs, cotton rugs, floccati rugs, sisal/maize mats, and wool rugs.
Natural FibersCome from either cellulosic sources (cotton, linen, jute), or protein fibers (silk, wool, leather) which are derived from natural sources.
Natural LightSunlight.
Natural Saturation PointThe amount of naturally occurring white or black value in a pure hue according to the Munsell system for color notation.
Natural Thermal FlowThe movement of heated air up and/or toward cold air and the consequent dropping of cool air.
Natural Traffic PatternThe pattern of movement users will follow in an environment if their circulation is not hampered or obstructed.
Naturalistic DesignA classification of decorative design that is a copy or representation of something in nature. It is realistic decoration or ornamentation.
Navajo RugsHandwoven flat tapestry rugs in earth-tone neutral colors and geometric patterns. Woven in the southwestern United States by members of the Navajo tribe.
NaveThe main section of the church where the worshipers stand or sit.
NcidqThe National Council for Interior Design Qualification.
Ncidq ExaminationAn examination administered to interior designers after a minimum of two years of professional work experience. Must be passed for full acceptance into several of the professional design organizations.
Needle-Constructed FabricsFabrics made or decorated with automated sets of needles, including knits, laces, some casements, and sehiffli embroidery.
Needlepoint RugsHand or machine rugs, most often from China or Portugal, with small stitches of wool yarn on an art canvas background.
Needlepunched CarpetCarpeting constructed of fibers held together by needlepunching or interlocking the fibers by meshing together with barbed needles. Used primarily in indoor-outdoor and nonresidential applications.
Negative SpaceThe area between the form in a two- or three-dimensional design. Empty or void space not filled in with furnishings, accessories, or mass.
NeoclassicAny revival of the ancient styles of Greece and Rome, particularly during the late eighteenth and early nine-teenth centuries.
Neoclassic (1790-1830)The period in America influenced by the excavations Of Pompeii.
Neon LampA thin glass tube containing a gaseous element (neon) that glows when charged with electricity. The tubes can be bent into any shape for artistic. or advertising purposes.
Neon LightingThe red spectrum of cold cathode lighting formed with neon gas.
Network Of LightingInterconnected wiring of lights indicated on the lighting or wiring plan in nonresidential buildings.
Neutralized ColorsAny hue that is dulled or grayed or lessened in brightness or intensity.
NeutralsBlack, white, and gray. Brown is a hue, derived from orange, but it is often referred to as a neutral, as are beige, tan, and the colored spectrum of off-whites.
New ConcreteThe concrete developed based on new concept has been termed as new concrete.
NewelIt is a wooden or metallic post supporting the hand rail and is usually provided at the hand, foot or at points where the balustrade changes its direction.
Newel PostA vertical post found at the end of a staircase railing that stabilizes the horizontal handrail.
NicheThe rounded, half-domed end of a room, or a similar recess in a wall.
NippersThis is another device for lifting stones. The pointed ends of the nippers are inserted in the holes made little below the stone top face and the stone block is raised by attaching a chain to the central ring of the nipper assembly.
NoggingThe infilling between the timbers of half-timbered homes in the seventeenth century, normally composed of brick or plaster.
Nogging Of BricksIt consists of brick work built within a framework of wooden members. The frame work consists of vertical posts called studs and held in position by horizontal members called nogging pieces.
NomexA registered trademark of DuPont for nylon.
Nonarehitectural LightingPortable luminaires.
Noncellulosic FibersThe range of synthetically composed man-made fibers that begin as chemicals and organic substances other than cellulose. Also known as synthetic fibers.
Nondurable Or Soluble FinishesThese are fabric finishes that are removed with repeated washing or dry cleaning.
Nonglare GlassClear glass with a faintly textured surface that does not reflect light.
Nonresidential DesignInterior design work where the client is not a residential occupant.
Nonresidential Wall CoveringsWall coverings that meet standards or codes for durability, fire safety, anti low maintenance. Wider and in longer rolls than residential wall coverings.
Nonresilient Flooring MaterialA category of materials that are hard and have no give or resilience.
Nonwoven TextilesA group of fabrics such as felt, webbing, and films that are processed into fabrics without going through the yarn stage.
NormanThe name given to the Romanesque architectural style in England.
NosingThe outer projecting edge of a tread is termed as nosing. Nosing is usually rounded to give good architectural effect to treads and makes the stair
Notching JointThis joint is commonly provided at the junction of two members meeting at right angle. It consists in cutting a depression to the full width of one member to enable it to be fixed to another member.
Novelty TwillA twill weave that changes direction to create a pattern such as herringbone.
Nut OilIt is a cheap vehicle and generally used for painting ordinary works of temporary character. It is colourless , less durable and it dries very quickly.
NylonA long-chain synthetic polymer fiber that consists of amides linked to aramide ring molecules. Nylon is a versatile, durable fiber used extensively for carpeting and upholstery.
Objet D'artA small object of artistic value,often used as a decorative element.
Objets D'artFrench term for any object of artistic worth.
Obliqueshouldered joint- These joints are commonly adopted in timber truss construction where members are jointed in acute or obtuse fashion.
Occasional ChairA chair kept away from the main seating area that can he pulled up and used occasionally, as needed.
Occasional PieceA small piece of furniture for inci-dental use, such as an end table.
Occasional TableA small table that can be moved and used for any purpose as needed.
Occult BalanceAnother word for asymmetrical, informal, active, or optical balance. The balance is not the same on each side but is achieved through arranging until the composition "feels right" and is therefore somewhat mysterious.
OculusLiterally an eye. The opening in the dome of the Pantheon.
OgeeA pointed arch with a curve near the apex.
Oil Bound DistemperIt is a form of distemper in which the drying oil is rendered mixable with water. When required , it is diluted with water.
Oil PaintA paint in which natural oil-usually linseed-is the medium that binds the pigments.
Oil-Based PaintsPaints that must be thinned and cleaned up with solvents or paint thinners. Durable, scrubbable finish. Requires a long drying time and has a strong odor.
OlefinA synthetic, long-chain polymer fiber consisting largely of ethylene or propylene. Olefin is durable and economical. Used for carpet face and backing and for upholstery.
On The BiasA line that is cut or placed diagonally to the pattern of a fabric or other material.
One - Pipe SystemIn this system , all soil and waste fitting discharge into a single pipe termed as soil cum waste pipe and a separate vent pipe is provided to which all floor traps are connected for ventilation of the system.
One-Turn StairA stair that turns ninety degrees at a landing.
Onion DomeA bulb or onion-shaped dome of Near-Eastern origin.
OoliteThe small round particles which make up a sedimentary rock. On mass they look just like fish eggs.
Open Competitive SelectionWhen clients such as government agencies advertise impending bids so that anyone interested in the project who meets qualifications may submit a bid.
Open Floor PlanA concept in interior and architectural planning where areas are left open, without wall divisions. The open areas can be used in a flexible manner to accominodate varying functions.
Open GrainA wood grain where the annual growth rings are pronounced and there is an obvious difference between the pore size of springwood and summerwood. Oak and ash and examples of open-grained wood.
Open Newel StairIt consists of two or more straight flights arranged in such a manner that a clear space called a well occurs between the backward and the forward flights.
Open Office PlanningA large office space in which workstations are divided only by systems furniture and other furnishings.
Open Riser StairA stairway that is open because it has no risers.
Open ShowroomA wholesale trade source that allows clients to accompany the designer into the showroom.
Open SpecificationA bid specification written in such a way as to allow multiple numbers of products for the item being required.
Open StairA stair not attached to the wall.
OpencastThe method of mining near the surface, by cutting into it from above rather than digging underground.
Operable WindowWindow that can be opened.
OppositionA form of rhythm (a principle of design) wherein right angles meet.
Optical BalanceAlso known as asymmetrical, informal, active, or occult balance. The balance is judged by the eye, or the optical senses.
Optical DensityThe appearance of a pattern or item as heavy or dense or filled in, and therefore judged as heavy mass.
OrdersColumns influenced by the Greeks and Romans are placed into specific orders, such as Doric, Ionic, Corinthian, Composite, and Tuscan.
Ordinary Incandescent LampsIncandescent bulbs that last from 750 to 2,500 hours.
Organizational Tool ProgramsSoftware that analyzes, organizes, and synthesizes information. Used for writing specifications, critical paths, and word processing.
Orielbay window supported by corbels or brackets. Normally found on the second story of a home.
Oriental RugsHand-knotted (handwoven) pile rugs from the Near and Far East woven in complex floral or geometric patterns. Used for area, art, and accent rugs and wall hangings. May be very valuable.
OrientationThe placement of any object or space, such as a window, a door, or a room, and its relationship to the points on a compass.
OrigamiArt of folding paper to form figures and objects.
OrlonA registered trademark of DuPont for acrylic.
Ostwald TheoryA system for analyzing color based on the color and the amount of white or black added to the hue.
Ostwald, Wilhelm (1853-1932)A physicist who won the 1909 Nobel Prize for chemistry and who turned his research to color, producing the well-known book The Color Primer.
OttomanAn upholstered stool or hassock, designed to go at the foot of a chair. Often used in contemporary interiors in place of a coffee table.
OutbuildingsBuildings situated away from a house used historically for kitchens, dairies, carriages, or servants' quarters.
Outlet PipeThis pipe is installed at 3 to 5 cm above the floor of the tank. The pipe is always provided with a stop valve to stop supply of water to downtake pipe.
Outlet StripsPrewired or plugged-in casings that contain several outlets in a row.
OutliningPainting contrasting colors or white values on architectural molding.
Over Flow PipeThis pipe is provided a little above the inlet pipe to allow the incoming water to overflow in case the ball valve assembly does not function properly and it is not able to shut off the incoming supply of water.
OverburdenThe unusable rock and matter lying over the stone to be quarried.
OvercrowdingAn excessive number of people working or living within a given space.
OverflowA pipe in bathtubs and lavatories used to prevent flooding. The pipe is located just below the rim or top edge of these fixtures.
OverlayA sheet of velum or tracing paper placed over a rough design to improve and refine it.
Overlay DoorThe door is on the outside of the frame and, when closed, the door hides the frame from the view.
Oxford WeaveVariation of plain weave in which two fine warp threads are interlaced with one heavier weft thread.
Oxide Of IronIt is a pigment produced from haematite ore. The pigment is obtained by grinding and levigating the red or brown haematite.
Pad PaintingThe application of paint with a flat fibrous pad.
PaddingA general term for carpet underlay or the cushioning layer covering the springs in upholstery.
PaintA liquid oil-, water-, resin-, alkyd-, acrylic-, or epoxy-based material that is applied by spraying, brushing, rolling, or pad painting. Dries to a flat, semigloss, gloss, or high-gloss finish.
PaintingA one-of-a-kind, two-dimensional art form created with color pigments and a number of different substances (vehicles) that give the paint form and body.
Palette KnifeA small, usually flexible knife used to mix paint on the artist's paint tray (palette) or to apply paint to the surface being painted.
Palette TheoryAnother name for the Standard Color Wheel theory.
Palisade WallA paneled fireplace wall formed of boards and battens.
Palladian WindowA three-part window in which the center window is arched and larger than two smaller, often-rectangular windows flanking it on either side.
PalladiumA photographic process in which the image is produced by palladium crystals deposited on the paper.
PanelA flat, rectangular piece of material that forms part of a wall, door, or cabinet. Typically made of wood, it is usually framed by a border and either raised or recessed.
Paneled DoorA traditional door formed with stiles, rails, and panels.
PanelingWood used to cover the entire expanse of a wall, from top to bottom.
Panel-Track Wall Fabric InstallationMetal tracks available for installing fabric on the wall. Used most often in nonresidential settings.
Paper Wall CoveringPaper front and back; no vinyl coating.
Papier-MacheA material used for the construction of furniture and accessories made from paper pulp and glue. During the nineteenth century these pieces were often painted black and inlaid with mother-of-pearl.
Par LampReflective parabolic aluminized reflector lamp with heavy, protective glass and a focused beam. Silvering is used to establish the beam spread and the reflective quality.
ParapetA low wall or railing built along the edge of a roof or a floor.
Parliamentary HingesThis type of hinges are used in situations where door or window opening is required to be kept free of obstruction due to shutters when open. These hinges permit the shutters , when open , to rest parallel to the wall clear of the opening.
ParquetThe decorative, geometric arrangement of short lengths of wood plank for floors and sometimes walls.
ParquetryGeometrically patterned wood inlay.
Parsons TableA sturdy square or rectangular table with block legs and an apron of equal widths. Designed in the 1950s at the Parson's School of Design.
ParticleboardA solid panel formed by compressing flakes of wood with resin under heat and pressure.
PartitionA partition wall may be defined as a wall or division made up of bricks , studding , glass or other such material and provided for the purpose of dividing one room or portion of a room from another generally , these are non-load bearing walls.
Passive BalanceAnother term for symmetrical or formal balance where items are identical on each side of a central point, and therefore no judgment of the composition is needed.
PastelA crayon of ground pigment bound with gum or oil. Pastel crayons have varying ratios of pigment to chalk and gum; the more pigment, the more intense the color.
Pate De VerreA paste of finely crushed glass that is mixed, heated, and poured into a mold.
PateraA round or oval raised surface design.
PateraeOval (or round) shapes used as ornament, often decorated with rosettes.
PatinaA surface coloring, usually brown or green, produced by the oxidation of bronze, copper, or other metal. Patinas occur naturally and are also produced artificially for decorative effect.
Patio DoorSee atrium door.
Patio HomeA small home set on a narrow, shallow building lot.
PatlonA registered trademark of Amaco for olefin.
PatternIs the repetition of a decorative motif on a surface.
Pattern BookBooks of patterns for houses, furniture, and architectural detail published for general use.
Pattern MatchingTo align a repeating pattern when joining together two pieces of fabric or wallpaper.
Pattern RepeatWall covering or fabric pattern measurement from the top of one pattern to the top of the next, or from one pattern to another horizontally.
Payback PeriodThe number of years that a purchase (such as a solar energy system) takes to pay for itself.
PedimentAwn ornamental detail placed over a door, portico, or window, often found in a triangular shape.
Pediment FriezeThe sculptural design within the pediment.
Peelable Wall CoveringWall covering that can be peeled away from a substrate (backing or lining), which is suitable to be repapered.
Pembroke TableAn occasional table with drop leaves and a drawer in the apron.
PendantsDecorative downward projections used to embellish architectural and furniture designs.
PeninsulaA countertop, with or without a base cabinet, that is connected at one end to a wall or another counter and extends outward, providing access on three sides.
Pent RoofA narrow, overhanging rooflike structure above the first story on Pennsylvania German houses.
PerfatapeA wide paper tape applied to sheetrock seams with plasterboard compound or mud.
Performance BondRequired of the winning bidder as a guarantee that the designer/vendor will complete the work as specified and will protect the client from any loss up to the amount of the bond as a result of the failure of the designer/vendor to perform the contract.
Perimeter LightingLighting around the outside of a room or an area. Perimeter lighting visually expands space.
PeristyleA continuous row of columns around a building. Also used to designate the colonnaded garden area at the rear of the Roman house.
PerlonA registered trademark of Bayer for nylon.
Permanent InstallationsStructural or finish materials that are not likely to be replaced due to their cost or difficulty to install or remove.
PerpendIt is a vertical joint on the face of a wall directly over vertical joints in alternate course.
Persian RugsThe finest of the Oriental rugs, traditionally from Persia (today Iran). High knot count, complex, usually floral patterns.
Personal ComputerA small computer for home or small-business use.
Personal SpaceThe invisible "bubble" of space that surrounds us and that we consider to be our own.
Perspective SketchA three-dimensional sketch or rendering of an interior space drawn in perspective with vanishing points.
PetrologyThe study of rocks, their origin and what they are made from.
PewterA soft, dull-gray alloy of tin, copper, lead, and antimony used to make tableware.
PhotoetchingA printmaking technique in which a light-sensitive metal plate is exposed to photographic film under ultraviolet light.
PhotogravureA printing process based on the production, by photographic methods, of a plate containing small ink-receptive pits.
Phyfe, Duncan (1768-1854)A New York furniture builder, originally from Scotland, known for his Regency-style pieces.
Piano NobileThe principal floor of a building; usually a raised first floor.
Picking OutHighlighting features on molding, such as dentil trim or carved bas-relief, with paint.
PickledPickling is a method of finishing wood which involves a white or off white stain that is applied to a porous wood in order to lighten the overall color, as well as show a contrast in the grain.
Piece DyeingColoring a length of fabric after it is woven into cloth.
PierSame as a column but without its details and proportions.
Pier FoundationWhen a heavily loaded building is to be situated in sandy soil or soft soil , overlying hard bed at reasonable depth , pier foundations are sometimes used to transfer the load of the building to the hard bed below. This method consists in sinking vertical shafts up to hard bed and filling them with concrete.
Pier Or PilasterIt is a vertical member of stone or brick masonry constructed to support an arch , beam or lintel , the width of which exceeds four times its thickness.
PigmentA nonsoluble coloring matter that is held onto the surface of the fabric with a resin binder. A compound that is the coloring agent for paint, ink, crayons, ll-id chalk.
PilasterA shallow rectangular column built into a wall for decorative purposes.
PileThe pile of a rug is the surface of the rugs material, ie: wool or silk. There are different types of ways to treat the pile in order to achieve various looks and feels to the rugs surface. (see cut pile, loop pile)
PileThe pile is the exposed surface of a rug, also called nap or face. There are different ways to treat pile like a cut pile or loop pile, which give a different look and feel to the rug.
Pile DensityCloseness of stitches (woven) or tufts of a carpet. Greater or tighter density yields a more durable product.
Pile WeaveA weave that utilizes a third set of threads that form a depth or a pile in the surface. Types of pile weave include velvet, terry cloth, and corduroy.
PillingTendency of fibers to work into small balls or pills.
Pillow ShamA removable decorative pillowcase.
Pin KnotA knot smaller that one-half inch in diameter.
Pitch Of Roof"The inclination of the sides of a roof to the horizontal is termed as the ""pitch of the roof""."
Pitch PocketAn opening between growth rings that may contain resin or bark or both.
Pl LampCompact twin fluorescent bulb.
Plain SawnThe most common way in which a log is cut, tangentially to the growth rings. Results in the common flam-grain appearance.
Plain SlicingA method used to cut a log parallel to a line through its center?produces a vaulted or cathedral-like grain.
Plain WeaveThe interlacing of threads or yarns in a one-over, one-under sequence.
PlainingThe process of taking the shavings of wooden member is called plaining.
Plan DrawingA flat, two-dimensional, scaled drawing of an environment as seen from above.
Plane Of LightA bank of light; a well-lit area.
PlankIt is the name given to a heavy , thick and wide wooden piece of timber.
Planned DevelopmentA tract of land that is developed into housing of a specific style, size, price range, and type (attached dwellings, single detached dwellings, luxury dwellings).
Plantation ShuttersLouvered shutters with wide blades. Used in the South during colonial days-as screens to encourage ventilation during the hot months.
PlasterA thick, pasty mixture of sand, water, and lime used for smooth or rough wall and ceiling textures.
PlasterboardAnother name for drywall, sheetrock, or gypsum board, plasterboard is a wall material made of pulverized gypsum rock and commonly used as a wall finish material.
PlasticsSynthetically produced, nonmetallic compounds that can be molded, hardened, and used for manufacture of various products.
Plate RailA narrow shelf for displaying plates.
Platform BedA low,self-contained bed frame that features slats or webbing for suspension, eliminating the need for a box spring.
Pleasing MatchA veneer method where attention is given to matching color and grain for a pleasing final effect.
Pleated ShadesFactory-manufactured polyester fabric shades permanently heat set into one-inch pleats. May be metallized on the reverse for energy efficiency.
Pleated ValancesA fabric top treatment that is given fullness through pleating.
PlenumThe space between a suspended ceiling and the floor above.
PlexiglasA highly transparent, lightweight, thermoplastic acrylic resin made into sheets like glass. Unlike glass, it is not easily broken.
PliesThin layers of wood laminated together to make plywood.
PlinthThe portion of a structure between the surface of the surrounding ground and surface of the floor , immediately above the ground.
Plinth AreaThe built up covered area measured at the floor level of the basement or of any storey.
PlotterA computer mechanical drawing printer that can produce drafting, two-and three-dimensional illustrations, and perspectives.
PlumbingThe systems thin carry water, sewage, or central vacuums.
Plumbing ChaseA thick wall containing plumbing.
Plush CarpetA tufted carpet with a dense, short, even pile in solid colors. Originally intended to imitate the pile of an Oriental rug.
PlutonicIgneous rocks which have formed from magma at a great depth in the earth's crust.
PlywoodA product made of thin sheets of wood glued together in layers.
Pneumatic System ConstructionAir-inflated or air-supported structures.
Pocket DoorA door that slides into a pocket recessed in the wall.
PodiumThe base on which Roman buildings are built.
PointIs perceived when a two-dimensionally perceived object appears relatively small in relation to the plane against which it is seen.
Point Or Pinpoint LightingSpotlighting a tiny area for emphasis or a glitter effect.
PointingIt consists in ranking out joints in brick work or in stone masonry to depth of about 13mm and filling the same with mortar of slightly richer mix.
Polaroid TransferA trademarked named for the process by which an image recorded by the camera's lens is reproduced directly onto a photosensitive surface, which functions as both film and photograph.
PolybloomA registered trademark of Chevron for olefin.
PolychromaticHaving various or changing colors.
PolyesterA synthetic long-chain polymer fiber of polymer ester. A durable, dimensionally stable fiber that is highly versatile. Most sheer and semisheer fabrics are of polyester. Used for residential carpeting and scatter rugs and for wall covering fabrics that are often used in nonresidential interiors.
PolypropyleneA modified olefin fiber used for artificial turf, tufted indoor-outdoor carpeting, and nonwoven (needlepunched) carpets and tiles. Also used for a primary and secondary hacking for some carpeting. A registered trademark of Thiokol for olefin.
PolyurethaneA paint and varnish resin that forms a protective coating on wood. Sold under the names Varathane, Urethane, and Durathane.
Pompeii And Herculaneum (Destroyed A.D. 79, Excavation Began 1754)Sister cities on the Ray of Naples (Southern Italy) that contained prosperous classical Roman architecture, preserved by the ashes and lava mud flow of Mount Vesuvius. Archaeological excavations resulted in the introduction of the Neoclassic or Classic Revival style in Europe and America.
Pool Of LightA circle of light thrown by a downlighter or spotlight.
Poppy OilIt is prepared by pressing poppy seeds. It is used for very delicate colours , it is expensive and is thus used for internal painting of light shades.
PorcelainA clay body that is white, strong, and hard when fired. When sufficiently thin, it is also translucent.
PorchA covered surface supported on pillars or otherwise for the purpose of pedestrian or vehicular approach to the building.
PorphyryA granitelike texture achieved by crisscross brushing, then stippling, spattering, and finally cissing paint. Also a type of stone.
Portable ComputerA keyboard, monitor, and drive unit that folds into the size of a briefcase.
Portable LuminairesNonarchitectural lighting such as table and floor lamps or plug-in wall lights.
Portable Space HeatersSmall units that produce heat for a small area or a room. Types include electric and propane heaters; they vary in their size, output, electricity consumption, and safety.
PortalThe porch on a Southwest Adobe house.
PorticoA covered entry structure normally supported by columns.
Portland CementThis is the most widely used type of cement and is so named because of its resemblance of its properties with a well known natural stone quarried at portland. Lime , slica and alumina are its main constituents.
Positive SpaceSpace filled in with a two- or three-dimensional form or shape.
Post PlateThis is similar to a wall plate with the only difference that it run continuously , parallel to the face of the wall , over posts and supports the rafters at their feet.
Post-Occupancy Evaluation (Poe)The formal process of looking at a design once it is in use to see how well it is Functioning.
PotpourriFrench term for the mixture of dried flower petals used to perfume a room.
PowerThe quality of acoustic energy as measured in watts. It is this power that people perceive as loudness.
Prang TheoryAnother name for the Standard Color Wheel theory.
PrefinishesProcesses that prepare a fabric for coloring, decorative, or functional finishes. Prefinishes include scouring, preshrinking, bleaching, mercerizing, and sizing.
Premium GradeGives the highest level of quality in materials, workmanship, and installation.
Prepasted Wall CoveringsWall coverings with a dry paste or adhesive preapplied to the back which is moistened, then pasted to the wall or ceiling.
PreservationMaintaining a building in its present state or the state to which it has been restored.
PreshrinkingA prefinish process of subjecting a cloth to wet or dry heat to cause it to shrink and stabilize before further finishing or coloring.
Pressed GlassDecorative glass formed in molds.
PretilA row of brick trim used to cap the adobe walls of the Territorial-style Southwest Adobe houses.
Pretrimmed Wall CoveringsWall coverings with selvages trimmed off at the factory.
Primary ColorRed, blue, or yellow that can't be produced in pigments by mixing other colors. Primaries plus black and white, in turn, combine to make all the other hues.
Primary ColorsThe three basic colors of which all other colors are comprised of: Red, Yellow, and Blue.
Primary Focal PointThe main point of emphasis in an environment. The object, area, or grouping that first catches the eye.
Primary HuesRed, yellow, and blue, as based on the Standard Color Wheel theory.
PrimersLiquid preparations that seal the surface and prepare it for paint application.
PrimingThis consists in applying first coat or the priming coat on the surface to fill the pores of wood by penetrating the primer inside the wood.
Principles Of DesignScale, proportion, balance, rhythm, emphasis, and harmony (unity and variety).
PrintAn image made from an inked surface. Prints are usually, but not always, produced by multiples.
PrintingApplying color to a finished cloth by hand (batik, tie-dye, stencil) or mechanical processes (automated silk screen, roller, transfer).
PrintmakingA method of in two-dimensional art pieces by various means. See also block prints, engravings, etchings,lithographs, and serigraphs.
Priscilla CurtainsSheer, semisheer, or muslin curtains with ruffles on all edges, on the ties, and as a valance; they meet at the center or crisscross; a colonial style.
Privacy DraperiesA white, an off-white, or perhaps a colored fabric installed on a traverse rod next to the window to be drawn closed at night for privacy.
Private ZonesAreas within a home that dictate privacy?the bedroom and the bathroom, for example.
Problem StatementA short declaration that identifies a design project according to purpose, location, and those for whom the design is being created.
Product DesignThe design of furniture, accessories, or other components that are marketed in the design field.
ProfileAn outline of user characteristics, habits, background, and design preferences that helps determine the direction a design should take.
ProgramEverything that happens or must be accomplished in an interior. It also is the written document that describes what will take place in an interior.
ProgrammingThe research phase of the design.
ProgressionA type of rhythm (a principle of design) wherein shapes repeat in diminishing or escalating sizes or where colors graduate from light to dark. Also called rhythm by gradation.
Projecting FireplaceA fireplace that projects beyond the wall plane to which it is mounted.
ProportionIs the relationship between one part of an object or composition and another part and to the whole, or between one element and another.
Proprietary SpecificationNames the products and materials by manufacturer's name, model number, or part number.
Protein FibersNatural fibers or fabrics whose source is animal based
ProvincialRustic; local; from the provinces or countryside.
ProxemicsThe way people use space and the way that use is related to culture.
Ps LampA pear-shaped incandescent lamp, often with a long neck.
Puarry TileRust-colored tiles that are fired at lower temperatures than ceramic tiles and valued for their natural terra-cotta coloration. Typically square or hexagonal shapes.
PuebloCommunal dwelling of the Pueblo Indians.
PulloutA full-extension cabinet component, such as a built-in pantry, hamper, basket, or shelf that is fitted with ball-bearing slides for ease of operation.
Punch ListA checklist of items to be completed before final building inspection and occupation.
PurlinA horizontal timber laid parallel to the wall plate and ridge beam, providing extra support for common rafters.
PurlinsThese are horizontal members of wood or steel , used to support common rafters.
Quarter SlicingA method used to cur. logs where the blade meets the grain at right angles to the growth rings, resulting in a straight, striped grain.
QuartersawnLumber that has been cut so that the grown rings are at an angle of between 45 and 90 degrees to the board face.
QuartziteThe metamorphic equivalent of a quartz sandstone, which has recrystallised into closely fitting granules.
Queen Anne (1702-14)Name given to the period design style during the reign of Queen Anne of England.
Queen CloserIt is a term applied to a brick, which is half as wide as a full brick. Cutting a brick lengthwise into two portions makes it.
Queen-Sized BedOne of the standard sizes for North American mattress manufacturers. 60" wide by 80" long (the depth varies greatly depending on the style and type of cushioning).
QuianaA registered trademark of DuPont for nylon.
Quick Setting CementWhen concrete is to be laid under still water or in running water , quick setting cement is used advantageously. The setting action starts within five minutes as it becomes stone-hard in less than an hour.
QuicksilverAn alloy of mercury and tin used for mirror backing.
QuintessA registered trademark of Phillips for polyester.
QuireAlternate British spelling for choir. See choir.
QuoinThe exterior angle or corner of a wall is termed as quoin. The brick or wedge shaped stone used for the corner of walls is also known as quoin.
R, Er LampsLamps with a built-in, reflective surface.
R-20, R-30, R-40Indicate the degree of beam spread in reflector lamps.
Rabat RugsMoroccan rugs in a deep, hand-knotted pile with simplified Oriental designs.
Radial BalanceA type of balance that is seen in the same way as radiation from a central point.
Radiant HeatElectrical conduit or water (steam) heat plumbing in ceilings, floors, or walls that radiates heat.
RadiationA type of rhythm (a principle of design) illustrated by elements radiating out in nearly every direction from a central point, such as spokes of a wheel or concentric circles.
RadiatorsWall or baseboard units that contain steam heat or another heated fluid medium, permanent or portable.
RafterOne of the series of members designed to support roof loads.
Rag RugA plain weave rug woven with strips of fabric, historically rags or recycled clothing.
Ragging And Rag-RollingWet paint or glaze is partially removed by dabbing with a rag or rolling the paint off with a rolled rag.
RailThe horizontal section of a frame for a panel or door frame.
RailroadingRailroading usually applies to wallpaper or fabric and specifies it to be installed horizontally rather then vertically. This comes in handy at times in order to use less fabric or have less seams in the installation.
Rain GutterThe metal glitter and downspouts that channel rain and snow runoff from the eaves down the side of the building to the ground.
Rain Water PipeThis is the pipe provided to carry rain water.
Rainbow RoofA curved, gabled roof, attributed to ships' carpenters, used on some Cape Cod houses.
Raised HearthA hearth built on a platform or cantilevered in front of a raised fireplace.
Raking BondThis is a bond in brick work in which the bonding bricks are laid at any angle other than zero ninety degrees.
RakuThe technique of rapidly firing low-temperature ceramic ware. Raku firings were used traditionally in Japan to make bowls for tea ceremonies.
RamblerA one-story detached home with or without a basement. The social, work, and private zones are located on the main floor.
Random MatchA way to join veneer where no particular attention is paid to the color or grain of the material or the pattern in which it meets. Considered a rustic or casual look.
Random-Shear Carpet TextureSee level-tip shear.
Rapid-Start Fluorescent LampsEliminate flickering as the gases quickly activate the phosphorus in the light. May also be controlled with a dimmer switch.
RattanA climbing palm with slender, tough stems used to make wicker.
Raw Linseed OilIt is a transparent vehicle , yellowish in colour , sweet in taste and has very little smell . It has inferior drying qualities and is generally used for inside painting work.
RayonA regenerated cellulosic man-made fiber that imitates the luster of silk at a lower cost. Primarily used for drapery and upholstery.
RebarBendable steel bars set into concrete for reinforcement and to deter cracking.
RebatingIt is the process of cutting a rectangular grove along the edge of a member , so as to enable the edge or tongue of other member to fit in the former.
Rebonded FoamSee bonded (rebonded) foam.
Recessed Adjustable LightingArchitectural luminaires that are fixed into the ceiling. The lamps can be adjusted to the desired angle.
Recessed DownlightA canister that fits into the ceiling and casts pools of light downward.
Recessed LuminairesA general term for luminaires that fit into the ceilings where the light is noticeable but the fixture is not.
Red LeadIt is an oxide of lead , bright red in colour and is usually sold in powder form or in the form of paste made by grinding it with linseed oil.
ReedingRows of parallel convex beads or moldings used to embellish a column or leg. If the piece is grooved with concave moldings, it is fluted.
Refinement Or RefiningThe process of placing overlays of tracing paper to improve a space plan design.
Reflecting GlareA shiny object causing a distraction in a task area.
RefractionThe bending of a ray of heat, light, or sound.
RegencyThe period or style of English architecture that paralleled American Greek Revival. See American Empire.
Registers (Heat Registers)The metal grill that covers the duct opening of the HVAC system.
Reinforced ConcreteConcrete set with rebar or metal mesh to deter cracking and to give strength.
Relief PrintA process in which a print is produced from the relief carving on a metal plate or a wood or linoleum block.
Relief PrintingPrinting from a pattern that stands out in relief, as is done with a block print.
RenaissanceThe great rebirth of classical art and learning during the fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth centuries.
RenderingAn artist's conception or perspective of a finished building exterior or interior, usually clone in full color.
RepeatThe repeat of a fabric or wallpaper tells you the size of the pattern and how often it is reproduced on the item.
RepetitionA type of rhythm (a principle of design) wherein shapes, forms, lines, or colors are repeated in a congruous manner.
RepousseAn ancient process in which sheet metal is hammered into contours from both the front and the back.
ReproductionsPrinted copies of an artist's work.
ResearchExamining all factors that influence a design.
Residential BuildingsThese shall include one or two private dwellings, apartment houses(flats), dormitories, hotels etc.
Residential Interior DesignConcerned with the panning and/or specifying of interior materials and products used in private residences.
ResilienceThe ability of a fabric or flooring to return to its original shape.
ResilientA material with some give or ability to bounce back.
Resist Or Reserve PrintingCoating the fabric with a chemical paste that resists the dye, then dyeing the fabric. The area not printed receives the color.
RestorationA research, demolition, and reconstruction process to bring a building back to a specific state of its history.
Retainer FeeA deposit given to the designer upon the client's signature on the letter of agreement that retains or hires the services of the designer.
Retaining WallIt may be defined as a wall built to resist the pressure of liquid , earth filling , sand or other granular material filled behind it after it is built.
RetrofittingAdding active or solar systems to an existing building.
ReturnThe distance from the face of a curtain rod to the wall casing where the rod bracket is attached.
RevealsThese are exposed vertical surfaces left on the sides of an opening after the door or window frame has been fitted in position.
ReverberationThe phenomenon of undue prolongation of sound of sound by successive reflections from surrounding surfaces , after the source sound has ceased , is called reverberation.
Reverse PaintingA technique where paint is applied to the back side of the surface (typically glass) and viewed through the front. This process requires the painting to be done in reverse order; what appears closest to the viewer, as a detail or highlight must be painted first rather than last. Any lettering must likewise be painted in the mirror image4 so it will appear right facing when viewed from the front.
Reversible CushionsLoose cushions that can be turned to avoid excessive soiling and wear.
Revolving DoorThey provide entrance on one side and exit on the other simultaneously keeping the opening automatically closed when not in use. The door is so assembled as to exclude the wind draught.
RhythmIs the repetition of elements in a regular patter.
RibA projecting band on a ceiling or vault.
Ribbon WindowA continuous band of windows.
RidgeIt may be defined as the apex of the angle formed by the termination of the inclined surface at the top of the slope.
Ridge BeamIt is a horizontal timber piece provided at the apex of a roof truss. The common rafters are fixed to this piece and are supported by it.
RiftsawnWood that haws been cut so that growth rings are at an angle of 30 to 60 degrees to the board face.
Ring PorousHardwood that shows a distinct zone between early and late wood, such as oak and ash.
Rise Of RoofIt is the vertical distance between the wall plate and the top of the ridge.
Rise Of StepsIt is the vertical distance between the upper surface of the successive treads.
RiserThe vertical portion of a step providing support to the tread.
Robsjohn-Gibbings, T.H. (1905-76)Designer of a group of Creek furniture reproductions, including the Klismos chair.
RockAny natural material formed of a single mineral or various minerals.
RococoSee Louis XV period.
Roller PaintingPaint application with a roller?a sleeve of soft fibrous pile fabric that can hold and release the paint evenly. Faster than brush painting. It tends to spatter but. is very useful for large areas such as walls and ceilings.
Roller PrintingA fabric printing method whereby dye is applied to raised figures on a cylinder, then stamped or transferred to fabric as it rolls over the cylinder.
Roller ShadeFlat fabric or plastic material on a roller rod, which is operated with a spring or pulley mechanism.
Rollikan RugA flat tapestry folk rug from Scandinavia that often incorporates simplified floral patterns and stripes.
Rolling Steel Shutter DoorsThese doors are commonly used for show windows , stores , shop fronts and godowns etc. The door shutter acts like a steel curtain and provides adequate protection and safety against burglars and fire.
Roman ShadeA fabric shade that folds up from the bottom accordion style. May be interlined for energy efficiency.
Roman ShadesPull up with a cord into accordion folds.
Romanesque(A.D. 800-1150) The Medieval architectural period based on Roman design.
RoofA roof may be defined as a covering provided over the top of a building with a view to keep out rain , snow and wind and to protect the building from the adverse effects of these elements.
Roof MonitorsClerestory windows, skylights, and cupola windows that catch hear from the sun and allow ventilation for excess summer heat.
Roof TrussesA joist and rafter system that forms the triangular construction of a roof.
Room HeightThe vertical distance measured from the finished floor surface to the finished ceiling surface.
RosetteA decorative element featuring a floral design often used with a plinth and fluted molding in Victorian architecture.
Rotary Screen PrintingA mechanized silk-screen process where the screens are wrapped around a circular drum that rotates the ink onto the fabric moving beneath the rotary screens. It is a fast and efficient process.
Rotary SlicingA method of shaving a continuous layer of wood from a log that has been mounted on a lathe, producing a broad, open grain.
Rotogravure Or RotoA printed pattern overlaid with layers of vinyl for sheet flooring.
RotundaA round, domed room.
Rough ArchesThese arches are built with ordinary bricks which are not cut to wedge shape.
Rough Cast FinishingIt is a finish in which the mortar for the final coat contains a proportion of fairly big size coarse aggregates.
Rough ElectricalThe wiring installed when the building is framed
Rough PlumbingThe installation of pipes to carry water and sewage and central vaccume.
Rough Tooled SurfaceIn this type of surface finish , the projection of the stone block are removed by means of chisels and the surface is nearly dressed true. The corners and the edges are made accurate , chisel
Round Wire Tufting/WeavingCarpet construction technique that yields even, round loops.
Roundheaded ArchAn arch formed in a perfect half circle, not flattened. A Roman or keystone arch.
Row HouseAnother term for town house.
Rrough HeatingThe installation of furnace and duct work system when the building is framed.
RubberA natural or synthetic composition that yields a resilient, solid or marble-patterned flooring.
Rubber-Backed Tufted CarpetCarpeting tufted into a foam rubber backing that serves as a pad or underlay. Direct glue-down installation.
RubbingsDesigns made by placing a sheet of paper over any object with a flat, raised pattern and rubbing it with a special crayon.
RubbleStone or rocks set or installed to produce an uneven, random surface.
Rubble ArchesThey are constructed with rubble stones which have been hammer-dressed , roughly to required shape and size of the voussoirs.
RugA soft floor covering laid on the floor but not fastened to it. It does not cover the entire floor.
Rumford FireplaceA fireplace specially constructed to maximize heat output and minimizes smoke problems.
RunnerA long narrow area rug designed to go in a hallway or foyer.
Running MatchA veneer method in which each face is complied from as many veneer leaves as needed, resulting in one of the most affordable veneers, with a varied and unequal appearance.
RushA grasslike marsh plant used to weave chair seats and floor mats.
Russian StyleThe Russian furniture style is a blending of styles from throughout Europe. The production of metal furniture can be considered a purely "Russian" phenomenon since the production of metal furniture was not found elsewhere in Europe at the time.
RusticatedRough-surfaced masonry or stone.
Rya RugsDeep pile shaglike rugs handknotted with abstract, contemporary patterns from Scandinavia.
Saarinen, Eero (1910-61)Architect/designer, creator of the pedestal furniture group.
Saber LegTerm describes a sharply curving leg in the classical style; also commonly called a scroll-shaped leg. Sabre legs are generally reeded.

A French term for the gilt-bronze "shoe" at the bottom of furniture legs.

Saddle SeatA wooden chair seat which has been hollowed to the sides and back to resemble the pommel of a saddle.
Safety LightingLighting required by code or building ordinances to protect the health and safety of the public. Examples include exit signs, aisle lighting, and lighting for stairs and landings.
Saggingirregular elongation or stretching of a drapery fabric due to increased humidity or moisture in the air.
SakeBrewed, alcoholic beverage made from fermented rice.
Salt GlazeA glaze created during high-temperature firings. Sodium, usually in the form of rock salt, in introduced into the fully heated kiln and forms a clear coating on the clay, often with an orange-peel texture.
Saltbox RoofA gabled roof with one slope longer and lower than the other.
SaltireA straight, X-shaped stretcher used on chairs or tables.
Sand Casting

An ancient and still widely used casting method in which moistened sand is packed against a model to make a mold usually for metal.

SandblastingA method of etching the surface of material by spraying it with compressed air and sand.
SandstoneA granular stone that may be used as floor or wall materials, laid at random or in a rectangular, ashlar pattern.
Sanitary FittingsThe fittings or appliance used for collection and discharge of soil or waster matter is termed as sanitary fittings.
SapwoodThe pale wood near the outside perimeter of a log.
SaranA synthetic long-chain polymer of vinylidene chloride. Saran is fire retardant and used alone or in fabric blends.
Sash CurtainsSheer or semisheer fabric shirred (gathered) onto a rod at the top and bottom of the window frame.
Sash DoorThis type of door is used in residential as well as public buildings with a view to supplement the natural lighting provided by windows or to make the interior of one room visible from the adjacent one.
Sash WindowIn this case , the window shutter consists of two vertical stiles , top rail and a bottom rail.
SateenA cotton fabric that's made to mimic satin with a smooth silky finish on one side.
Sateen, Satinet, Or Horizontal SatinA satin weave where the weft or filler threads float over five to eight warp threads, then are tied down under one in an irregular manner that produces a smooth surface.
Satin Or Eggshell PaintA paint that dries to a finish slightly less shiny than semigloss but more lustrous than flat.
Satin WeaveA smooth, often lustrous fabric weave where warp threads float over five to eight weft or filling threads, then are tied down under one. There are no ridges or wales.
SauvageA two-toned or contrasting color effect applied to leather furniture.
Savonnerie RugA hand-knotted pile rug from France, originally woven at the Savonnerie Tapestry Works and patronized by King Louis MN. Historic and contemporary patterns.
Sawbuck TableA table with an X-shaped frame either plain or scrolled.
ScaffoldingScaffold is a temporary rigid structure having platforms raised up as the building increases in height. It enables the mason to work at different stages of a building and to hoist the materials for the immediate use at various angles.
ScagliolaA material developed in the 17th century in Northern Italy to duplicate marble. It is made from colored plaster and isinglass with inset marble chips. It can be polished to give a gloss finish.
ScaleIs the relative size of something as related to another element of known size.
ScallopA curved case piece ornamentation, commonly in the shape of a scallops shell.
ScandinavianAt the 1930 Stockholm Exhibition and the 1939 World's Fair in New York, the larger world was first exposed to the simple, clean, and lightweight forms of Scandinavian furniture. Quality craft combined with mass production where appropriate are hallmarks of the style. Bent plywood is a commonly used material.
Scarfing JointThis system of lengthening wooden member is especially suitable in places where it is necessary to maintain the same depth and width of the member throughout its length.
Scatter RugsSmall rugs (sometimes called throw or accent rugs), often with a tufted cut pile, used in residential areas where water is likely to spill or where dirt is tracked in. Usually of poliester or nylon.
Scatter-Back SofaA sofa with back loose back cushions that can be rearranged. Find a sofa.
ScheduleThe chart that indicates the finish material used on floors, walls, and ceiling and lists types of doors and windows.
SchedulingArranging for subcontractors and craftspeople who build or finish portions of a building and its interior to complete their work within -a time frame.
Schematic Design PhaseInvolves preliminary design decisions for plans and specifications.
SchematicsQuick drawings used to generate or show ideas.
SchoolsGroups of artists with like philosophies whose work has similar characteristics.
SconceA wall-mounted light fixture (usually hard-wired).
Scoop SeatA wooden chair seat that has been hollowed out to fit the body.
ScotchgardRegistered Trademark of the 3M Company for fabric protector that repels against staining from water and spills.
ScreensA general term for a sliding or freestanding frame filled with wood, paper, fabric, or other materials, which may he placed in front of a window or used as a divider.
Scribe PieceIs an oversized piece of plastic laminate or wood that can be trimmed in the field to follow any minor irregularities of the wall.
ScrollScrolls are the supportive and decorative members shaped like a scroll or curl which are connected to posts, rails, and each other on many brass (especially traditional) headboards and footboards.
Scroll FootA foot in the form of a spiral line. It is not fully articulated with part above it.
Scroll PedimentA pediment with a flat bottom and two curved volutes at the top, of ten with a finial between the volutes.
ScrubbableWall coverings that can be repeatedly washed with detergent solutions.
SculptureThc art of fashioning figures and forms of wood, clay, plastics, metal, or stone.
Sculptured CarpetA carpet with more than one height to the pile, which gives a pattern to the whole.
Sculptured-Loop CarpetA multilevel-loop carpet, the same as embossed-loop carpet.
Sealed EnvironmentA building with nonoperable or fixed windows; HVAC provides warm, cool, and clean air.
SealersA liquid used to prepare a surface for painting.
Seamless FlooringA mixture of a resinous matrix, fillers, and decorative materials applied in a liquid or vicious form that cures to a hard, seamless surface.
Seasonal Affective Disorder (Sad)A condition with symptoms of fatigue and depression affecting some people who are deprived of natural light during the long winter season.
Seat RailThe framework that supports the seat of a chair and holds the legs together.
Secondary ColorOrange, green, and violet are secondary colors.
Secondary Focal PointThe point (or points) of emphasis in an environment that is (are) subordinate to the primary focal point because of size, location, color, Or other design factors.
Secondary HuesOreen, orange, and violet, as based on the Standard Color Wheel theory.
Secrétaire À AbattantA type of writing cabinet with a fall front and resting on a chest-of-drawers or small cupboard. Find home office furniture.
SecretaryA desk with drawers below and a bookcase above.
Secretary (Or Secrétaire)A drop-leaf desk normally sitting on a base of drawers, usually with slots and cubbyholes for organizing papers. Find home office furniture.
SectionalSimilar to a sofa but in several sections. Sectionals may be curved or straight and have two, one or no arms. The sections may be used in combination or in some cases separately. Find a sectional sofa.
Sectional FurnitureModular furniture, often seating pieces, that can be combined into different combinations.
Security SystemA wiring system that detects unlawful entry.
SedimentaryRocks formed by the transformation of existing rocks by gravity, atmosphere and living organisms.
SeersuckerA lightweight textile with a puckered surface and striped pattern.
SefA registered trademark of Monsanto for modacrylic.
SegmentalA less than semi-circular, unbroken pediment with an abruptly ending curve.
Segmental PedimentA pediment with a flat bottom and a curved radius at the top.
SeignorailAn imposing highback chair for the master of a house.
Self Storing LeavesLeaves that store within an extension table. Find a dining table.
Self-DeckTo cover the frame area of an upholstered piece of furniture beneath the seat cushions with the same fabric as the body as opposed to using a muslin or other neutral fabric. Normally seen only on better furniture.
SelvageFinished sides of a lengthwise grain that prevents raveling.
SemenierA tall narrow seven-drawer chest, the term is often used in reference to a lingerie or similar type of chest. Find bedroom furniture.
Semi GlossSemi gloss is a type of finish that has a partial to heavy gloss. This usually applies to a paint finish or a clear finish on a piece of wood. Semi-gloss paints are popular on base moldings because they don't scratch as easily as a less glossy finish, and they are easier to clean.
Semi-Aniline LeatherA top grain leather that is aniline dyed and coated with matching pigment and, or, other topical finishes to add protection and even out the color. Also commonly referred to as aniline-plus or protected aniline. Find leather furniture.
Semi-Attached BackBack cushions that are attached with a zipper or seam to the inside back of a piece of upholstered furniture such as a sofa or chair.
Semidetached HousesA term for housing in which portions of walls and roofs are common to two or more units.
Semi-DurableA fabric finish that will withstand wet, but not dry cleaning.
Semigloss PaintA paint rhat dries to a luster between flat and shiny; it contrasts nicely with both and hides fingerprints.
Semihoused StairA stair attached to the wall on one side.
Semitrimmed Wall CoveringWall coverings with only one selvage trimmed off. The selvage edge is overlapped with the next strip or trimmed off at the site.
SepiaWarm, reddish-brown pigment produced from octopus or cuttlefish ink, used in watercolor and drawing ink. In photography, some toning processes produce similar color in the print.
Septic TankIn areas , where municipal underground sewage system is not available , the sewage from residential apartments , small residential colonies and isolated buildings like offices , schools , hospitals etc. is treated in a septic tank.
SericultureCultivated silk production.
SerigraphAn art print made by passing ink through a fine screen that has been covered with a cut stencil to form the pattern. Also called silk screen.
SerpentineTwo curves reminiscent of a serpent's movement; commonly found on fronts or tops of case pieces.
Serpentine FrontA waving curve on the front of a desk or chest.
SerratedA saw tooth or zig-zag ornament that is one form of a notched dentil.
Service ConnectionIt is a water connection given by the local body (municipal cooperation) from city water distribution mains to a consumer. The consumer may be the owner of a single house , a multistoried building , a planned block development or a water district buying water wholesale.
Service RoadA road/lane provided at the rear or side of a plot for service purposes.
Serving TableA long narrow table with drawers for items such as silver and linens. Find dining room furniture.
Set-Back ArmAn arm that is set back from the front edge of the seat.
Set-Back LineA line usually parallel to the plot boundaries and laid down in each case by the local municipal bodies beyond which nothing can be constructed towards the plot boundary.
SetteeA long wooden or upholstered bench with a back,designed to seat two or more people.
SettleA wooden bench with a high back and solid arms, often featuring drawers or a hinged seat that covers storage space, originally brought to America by the pilgrims. Find an entryway bench.
Seventeenth-Century English Medieval StyleThe design style of seventeenth-century America, inspired by the late Medieval designs of England. Architecture, interiors, and furniture were all strongly influenced by English prototypes.
SewageIt is combination of discharge from soil pipe , waste pipe with or without rain water.
SewerIt is a system of underground pipe belonging to local municipal authority which collects discharge from drains or house drains from outside the private boundary of more than one property.
ShadeAny color mixed with black (most rich,ultra-dark colors are shades)
ShadesSec roller shade.
ShadingBlending painted color values from light to dark across a wall or ceiling.
Shading DevicesInterior or exterior window coverings that deter solar gain from penetraling the interior.
Shake ShinglesWooden roof shingles, somewhat irregular in widtb, that weather to a gray color.
ShakerA simplistic furniture design including features such as straight, tapered legs, and woven-strap chair seats. Style originated in the mid 1770's from an American religious sect (Shakers). The Shaker style is renowned for exceptional design and craftsmanship combined with functionality and beauty.
ShakersA late eighteenth-century, early nineteenth-century religious sect whose beliefs included the design of furnishings devoid of excessive decoration.
ShamHistorically a cover that laid on top of a pillow, today the sham is a decorative cover that fully encases the pillow.
ShanturaA registered trademark of Rohm and Haas for polyester.
ShapeIs the unique characteristic of an object or space that defines it as distinct from adjacent objects or spaces.
Shaped ValanceA flat fabric top treatment with a shaped or curved bottom hem. Interlined with stiffening fabric and/or batting and sometimes quilted.
Sheaf-Back ChairsChairs with spindled backs that come together in the middle-back through a piece of wood and flare out again to the bottom of the chair; the style resembles a sheaf of wheat. Find dining chairs.
Shed CeilingA ceiling with a single slope.
Sheer Draperies And CurtainsTransparent or translucent fabric hung next to the glass. Called draperies if pleated and hung on a traverse rod, curtains if shirred or gathered onto a curtain rod.
Sheet SetSheet sets includes flat and fitted sheets, standard pillowcase pair. Twin has one pillowcase, king and California king have king size pillowcases.
Sheet VinylRolls of vinyl in widths up to twelve feet, glued down directly to a prepared surface. May have a cushioned hacking, and the thickness of the vinyl surface may vary with die quality.
SheetrockAlso known as drywall, gypsum board, or plasterboard; a rigid wall material made of pulverized gypsum rock. See wallboard.
ShellacA resinous varnish obtained from the lac insect and used in japanning.
SheratonA formal style of design that developed from Hepplewhite. Sheraton features include delicate straight lines, tapered legs that are usually turned opposed to being square and skilled inlay and veneer work.
Sheraton, Thomas (1751-1806)An important English furniture craftsman best known for the designs published in his book The Cabinet-Maker and Upholsterer's Drawing Book.
Shield BackA chair with a back shaped like a shield. Find dining chairs.
ShinglesWood, asbestos, or tile components commonly used as a finish material on angled (gable or hipped) roofs.
Shirred CurtainsFabric gathered onto a rod with or without a ruffle at the top.
Shirred ValanceA fabric top treatment gathered onto a curtain rod.
ShirringA method of gathering wide fabric along both long sides to create a soft effect. Often used to emphasize the curve of a sofa or other upholstered piece.
ShoeA projecting piece rising from the back rail of a chair seat into which the base of the splat is fixed.
Shoe MoldingA flexible trim piece that is used in conjunction with baseboard molding. This trim is used to hide any variances in height between the base molding and flooring.
Shoji ScreenA freestanding Oriental style screen, often used as a room divider. Find floor screens.
Shoji ScreensWooden frames and divider grids filled with translucent white mulberry or rice paper. Used in traditional Japanese homes and contemporary Western residential and nonresidential interiors as well.
ShoringThe term shoring is applied to construction of the temporary structure required to support an unsafe structure.
ShowroomsWholesale businesses Usually located in marketing centers where the designer may see lines of merchandise, place orders, or buy furnishings.
ShutterTypically a louvered or flush wood or vinyl frame in the shape of a door placed at each side of a window. Shutters are made and used for many purposes including protecting windows from storms, filtering or obscuring light, and for nonfunctional decorative accents. Find shutters.
Side ChairTerm normally used to refer to an armless dining chair or a small-scale, armless chair designed to stand against a wall when not in use. Find dining chairs.
Side DraperiesStationary panels hung on each side of a window.
SideboardA long storage chest often used for serving and storage in a formal dining room.
SidelightsVertical, narrow windows used on each side of a door.
Sight LineThe natural line of sight the eye travels when looking into or around a room.
SilkA natural fiber derived from the silk worm. Silk is famous for being soft, smooth and lustrous. Hence the saying, "smooth as silk".
Silk ScreenSee serigraph.
Silkscreen PrintingA printing process in which paint, ink, or dye is forced through a fine screen onto the surface beneath. Different areas of the screen are blocked off with each layer of color.
Silk-Screen PrintingA traditional method of stencil printing, done by squeegeeing ink through stencils on sheer silk stretched on wooden screens. Originally it was a hand technique. Now flatbed printing automates the moving of fabric under the screens and the raising and lowering of the screens, and rotary screen printing further speeds the process by rotating the pattern onto the fabric with no hand labor. Silk screening accounts for a large portion of printed designs today.
SillAn igneous intrusion that is more or less horizontal but forms into a single step shape.
Silt TrapSilt trap are provided only in situations where the waste water carries large amount of silt , sand , coarse particles etc. It is a masonry chamber which functions like grit chamber where the silt , sand etc. settle down before the waste water is discharged into the drainage.
Silver GelatinA photographic process that uses silver halide crystals suspended within the photographic emulsion to produce the image. The most popular type of black-and-white photograph produced today.
Silver PlateFlatware made from an alloy of silver and nickel, electroplated with Pure silver.
SilveringThe process of coating with silver or silverlike substances.
Single GlazingFilling a window opening with one layer of glass.
Single RollOne bolt of wall covering containing approximately thirty-six square feet.
Single-Hung SashSash windows in which only the bottom section is operable.
Single-Wide Mobile HomeA mobile home that is approximately twelve to fifteen. feet wide and twenty to forty feet long.
SinkSink is commonly used in kitchens , hospitals and laboratories. It is made of glazed fire clay , stainless steel , plastic etc.
Sinuous SpringsAlso known a "S coils" and "Zigzag wire". Sinuous springs are used in place of coil spring units in upholstered pieces such as sofas.
Sinuous Wire SpringAn essentially flat spring bent in a zigzag fashion used in upholstered furniture.
SisalStrong fiber from the leaves of the sisal plant used to create area rugs and broadloom floor coverings.
Sisal And Maize MatsNatural cellulosic fiber mats that are coarse and rough to the touch.
SiteA piece of land enclosed by definite boundaries.
Size (Sizing)A solution used as a finisher for fabrics, which stiffens the surface and helps protect against wear.
SizingA thin liquid painted on a surface before hanging wall coverings. It seals against alkali, lessens the paste quantity needed, and provides some grip for the wallpaper.
SketchA rough, quick illustration of a proposed space or a detail of the space.
Skew-BackIt is the surface of the abutment on which the arch rests.
SkirtA piece of fabric at the bottom of a sofa, loveseat or chair that hangs in a way resembling a woman's skirt. On case-goods the term refers to the panel connecting the surface and legs of a table or chair.
SkylightThis is a type of fixed window provided on the sloping surface of a pitched roof , the window being parallel to the sloping surface. The skylight is provided with a view to permit the room below to be fully lighted with natural light.
Slant-Front DeskA frame or chest of drawers with a top section as an enclosed desk for writing, with the hinged lid sloping at a 45 degree angle when closed.
Slat BackAn early American chair incorporating horizontal slats. Find dining and kitchen chairs.
SlateA fine-grain metamorphic rock that is easily split into thin slabs, making it ideal for flooring as well as roofing.
Slate RoofA roof covered with thin sheets of stone, used like shingles.
SlatsWooden boards used as the bottom structure to support box spring units within their frames. Also used in headboard and footboard sets with wood rails and in bunk beds to support the mattress in place of a box spring. Slats can also be used as a feature in furniture construction. Slatted construction is commonly seen in mission and arts and crafts furnishings.
Sleeper (Or Hide-A-Bed)A sofa, loveseat, or chair that converts into a bed. Also available in some sectionals. Find a sleeper sofa.
Sleepy Hallow ChairA large upholstered chair with a hollowed seat, high back and solid low arms.
Sleigh BedA wooden bed with a large headboard and footboard that resembles the shape of a horse-drawn sleigh.
Slide-OutSee "Pullout."
Sliding DoorThis type of door is considered suitable for shops , sheds , godowns etc. and in places where the use of hinges for fixing the shutter is to be avoided.
Sliding WindowIn this type of window , the shutters move on roller bearing and can slide either horizontally or vertically.
Sliding WindowsWindows that slide horizontally.
Slip MatchA veneer method commonly used with quartered and rift-sawn material, where successively cut pieces are joined together to form a repeating pattern. The grain does not math up at the joints.
Slip SeatA removable upholstered chair seat.
SlipcoverA removable fabric cover for a chair, sofa, or loveseat. Either custom-tailored or adjusted with ties and fasteners.
SlipcoversFitted covers that can be placed over the original upholstery and secured with snaps or other fasteners.
Slipper ChairA low armless chair, often found in bedrooms.
SlubAn uneven section in a yarn which gives fabric a rough texture.
Sludge Soak PitThis is an alternative method of disposal of sewage from an individual house drain. The sludge soak pit can function effectively in situation where the ground water table is low and the sub
Slumped GlassPreformed flat or three-dimensional glass that is reheated and shaped in a mold.
Smart HouseRegistered trademark of the National Home Builders' Association for home automation.
Smoke DetectorA fire-alarm device that sounds when triggered by excessive smoke in the air.
Social ZonesAreas for formal or informal social interaction.
SofaA long upholstered seating piece with a back and arms, which can seat three or more people. Find a sofa.
Sofa TableA table normally used behind a sofa or loveseat that has been positioned away from the wall or that's in the middle of a room. Find a sofa table.
SoffitUnderside of an overhang.
Soffit LightingArchitectural lighting built into a soffit.
Soft Window TreatmentsFabric treatments: curtains, draperies, shades, and top treatments.
Soft WoodWood from a conifer trees such as pine and cedar.
SoftwareComputer program that accomplishes specific tasks.
SoftwoodA botanical grouping of trees that displays needles and cones rather than broad, flat leaves.
Soil-Release FinishAllows a fabric to more readily absorb water and free soil to be lifted out with mild detergent.
Soil-Repellent Or Soil-Resistant FinishesThese are sprayed onto the surface of a fabric, forming a temporary barrier that prevents soil from penetrating the fabric. If the soil or stain is not removed quickly, it can be forced into the fabric through tiny cracks in the finish. The soil may then he locked under the finish, making it very difficult to remove.
Solar GreenhousesA greenhouse living space that is also a passive solar collector; a solarium.
Solar Heat GainHeat front sunshine collected through glass walls or windows. May be absorbed, stored, and released through many of the hard background materials such as stone, tile, brick, and concrete.
Sole ProprietorshipAn interior design business owned by one person.
SolidWooden furniture construction with solid pieces of wood in all the external or visible parts of the piece.
Solid Wood FlooringSolid wood flooring  Flooring that is constructed from solid wood boards, rather than laminated or veneered boards. Normally three-quarters of an inch thick.
Solid-Core DoorA veneered door with a core of solid wood pieces. Also called lumber-core door.
Solution Or Dope DyeingThe addition of dyes or coloring matter to die viscose solution in man-made fibers before they arc extruded. The dyes then become colorfast and will not fade. The process is more costly than other methods of dyeing and must be done well in advance of the finished product, making solution-dyed color somewhat risky in today's market of rapidly changing color trends.
SolventA liquid for thinning and cleaning up oil-based paints.
Sound BoardAn insulative material in rigid form that prevents audible sounds from being heard; usually used beneath drywall.
Sound InsulationControl of noise transmission is essential to minimize the disturbing effect of sound passing from one person to another , through walls , partitions, floors and ceilings.
Sound KnotA knot that is solid across its face, and remains intact.
SouthwesternContemporary style which is highly influenced by Native American Indian traditions. Light-colored woods, light and bright color palettes, rich patterns and desert scenery characterize the style.
SpaceAn element of design consisting of a continuous expanse of distance without forms, which is divided with walls, partitions, and furnishings. Filled space is termed positive space and empty space is called negative space.
Space ConfigurationA design term that is used to describe the reallocation of interior space without adding on.
Space PlanningThe allotment of spaces to create a workable floor plan. The organization and division of spaces into rooms or areas to meet specific needs.
Space-Saving DeviceAny means of maximizing the existing space, thereby making a space seem larger.
Spade FootA tapered to the base leg design, usually found in Hepplewhite styles.
SpallsChips or small pieces of stone broken off a large block are termed as spalls. They are used in filling the interstices in stone masonry.
SpaltedWood that contains areas of natural decay, giving it distinctive markings.
SpanIt is the clear horizontal distance between the supports.
SpandrelAn arch bounded by a horizontal and vertical frame such as was used by Sheraton in some chair backs.
SpandrilIt is the triangular walling enclosed by the extrados of the arch , a horizontal line from the crown of the arch and a perpendicular line from the springing of the outer curves.
Spanish RenaissanceStyle during the 1500's to 1700's, which had a huge Moorish influence. Decoration relies heavily on patterns that have elaborate geometric carving. Spanish Renaissance pieces often have decorative metal accents and brass nails. Familiar upholstery is red and green leather. Chairs and tables can have iron or heavy wood stretchers. Spanish Renaissance blends well with other Renaissance furniture, as the favored woods were walnut, oak, and cedar.
Spanish RugsHand-knotted pile rugs with a coarse, sparse weave. Classified with folk rugs.
SpatteringPainting effect created by flicking a brush with wet paint.
Special RoddingDrapery rods that can be bent and suited to custom or special installations.
SpecificationsThe written list of materials and furnishings, itemized according to company, stock number, color, and other pertinent ordering information, and the location where the goods will he installed. Also, in nonresidential architecture, the criteria of minimum durability, cost, and safety requirements of finish materials.
SpecifierA type of designer whose role is limited to selecting or specifying which products or specifications will be used.
Spectral Energy DistributionThe inherent color characteristics of an object or material due to the type and amount of dyes or pigments. This can cause the object or material to appear as different colors under different kinds of light; also describes the color of the light source.
SpectranA registered trademark of Monsanto for polyester.
SpindleA slender turned and shaped column, which often swells out in the lower half and is usually used in rows such as the back of a Windsor chair.
Spinet DeskA writing desk that was designed using a musical instrument of the colonial period. After the instrument wore out, the keyboard was removed and the cabinet was modified to be used as a writing desk.
SpinneretteThe shower head-like device through which man-made fiber viscose solutions are forced to create monofilament. The size and shape of the holes in the spinnerette can be changed to give various characteristics to the fibers.
Spiral LegA leg that's carved, or turned, into the shape of a rope twist or spiral.
Spiral StaircaseA corkscrew-shaped staircase.
Spiral TurningA column twisted like strands or filaments of rope.
Spiral WaveA series of turning, wave-like scrolls used as decoration.
Spiral WeltA decorative welting trim that features one or multiple colors arranged in a spiral pattern.
SplatA flat, vertical piece in the middle of an open chair back, which is often carved or ornamented.
SplayedA pitched spread or slant; a surface canted outward, beveled or angled.
Splayed LegA leg that slants outward from a piece of furniture.
Splint SeatA seat made of oak or hickory strips interlaced. Used in country furniture throughout the 18th Century.
Split ComplementConsists of a hue and the two colors on each side of its direct complement.
Split LeatherThe bottom layers of the hide, which have been split from the top-grain leather and then pigmented or sueded. Find leather furniture.
Split Queen BoxTwo queen size foundation units that measure 30"x80" each. Designed to accommodate the passage of a single-piece foundation. Find a queen mattress set.
Split-Back SofaA sofa that's made with vertical seamed indentations in the back, which usually divides the surface in three. Find a sofa.
Split-Entry HomeA two-level home in which the entry is located in the center, and the person entering walks upstairs to the kitchen/living/dining areas and the bedroom/bath areas, and downstairs to the family room, extra bedrooms, and storage areas.
Split-Level HomeA three- or four-level home with half flights leading from one area to the next.
Sponge Rubber PadCarpet underlay. The most common example of sponge rubber is waffle padding.
SpongingApplying paint with sponges for texture and color overlay.
Spool BeadA continuous turning having the form of a series of connected beads.
Spoon Back (Or Spooning)A curved chair back designed to fit the sitter's form. Common on Queen Anne chairs.
SpotlightA luminaire that focuses light in one direction, casting a pool of light.
Spray PaintingPainting with the spray gun is considered to be a highly developed and efficient method of applying all types of protective coatings.
Spread FootingsIn this , the base of the member transmitting load to the soil is made wider so as to distribute the load over wider area.
Spring DownA type of cushion constructed of coil springs, which are wrapped in polyurethane and covered with down batting.
Spring EdgeAn upholstered seats front edge that's supported by springs rather than the frame.
SpringerIt is the first voussoir at springing level on either side of the arch.
Springing LineIt is an imaginary line joining the two springing points.
Springing PointsThese are the points at the extremities of the intrados.
SpringsThe most commonly used springs for upholstered furniture are coil springs and sinuous springs.
Squab CushionA loose flat cushion on the seat of a chair.
Square Feet Or FootageThe width multiplied by the length of a room or building. The two-dimensional floor space.
Square LegA four sided leg of equal dimensions on all sides (resembling a fence post) that supports a piece of furniture such as a coffee table or dining table.
SqueegeeAn implement with a strong, straight ctosspiecc edged with rubber used to spread a thin layer of ink across and through a silk screen.
Squint JointThis is formed when two walls meet each other at an angle other than a right angle without forming a quoin.
StackIt is a term used for any vertical pipeline of a drainage system.
StackingThe wall or window area that's required for draperies when they are completely opened.
StainColor mixed with water, oils, or other agents and applied to wood as part of the finishing process.
Stained GlassColored and clear glass set into patterns and hung in front of windows or used as the window glazing itself.
StainingThe step in the finishing process where coloring (stain) is applied to a piece of wood furniture.
Stainless SteelAn alloy of steel and chromium.
StainsIt is a liquid preparation which is used to change the color of various types of cheap quality wood to give them the appearance of wood of superior quality.
StairA stair may be defined as a structure comprising of a number of steps connecting one floor to another.
StairwellThe open space filled by a stair.
StampsVarious names and letters are often found stamped on French furniture made in the 18th Century or later. These stamps are an important means of identifying the makers of individual pieces of furniture.
Standard Color Wheel TheoryBased on three primary colors--red, yellow, and blue?and the variations derived by mixing these, plus black and white. Colors are arranged in a circle, with secondary and tertiary or intermediate colors placed between the primary colors.
Standard FinishesApplied to fabrics to enhance durability. Also known as wet, chemical, or functional finishes.
StapleShort fibers that vary from approximately one-half to two inches. Staple yarns offer greater bulk, insulation, and area coverage.
Stapled Wall FabricFabric attached to a wall by staples.
Starting StepThe first step of the stair.
State Of The ArtThe current or latest technology; the newest developments.
Statuary MarblesThose marbles used for sculpture.
Steam BendA method of bending a single piece of wood (bowback chair, bowed splat, etc.) into a furniture part.
SteelA hard alloy of iron and carbon.
SteelingMending a vent (hairline) crack by cutting grooves on the reverse side of a slab of stone and inserting strips of metal.
StemwareDesignation given to fine drinking glass with raised bowls, stems, and bases.
StencilingMethod of creating patterns by covering an area of a surface and applying color to the uncovered area.
Stereo CabinetA cabinet used for housing stereo components and related media such as a CD player, AM/FM stereo receiver, audio CDs and related items. Find a stereo cabinet.
Sterling IiFlatware with sterling silver handles and stainless steel blades, tines, and bowls.
Sterling SilverFinest type of silverware; 92.5 percent pure.
StickleyFurniture designed and built by Gustav Stickley who pioneered the American Arts and Crafts movement, also known as Mission style, which is known for clean straight lines and durability. Web site of Stickley.
Stickley, Gustav (1848-1942)Furniture designer and exponent of the Mission style.
StickworkFlat battens used on Victorian buildings to create patterns in imitation of Medieval timber framing.
StileThe upright section of a frame for a panel or door frame.
Still LifeA depiction of a group of inanimate objects arranged for symbolic or aesthetic effect.
StipplingSimilar to sponging but uses a stippling brush to dab on a colored glaze or paint, revealing some of the base color.
Stock DyeingThe coloring of natural fibers (particularly wool) in the raw-goods state (stock) before they are spun into yarns.
Stock PlansFloor plans that are mass-produced and purchased, usually by mail order, by anyone wishing to build that home.
StoneAny hard rock used for flooring or wall materials.
Stone-EndersSeventeenth-century houses with stone-covered chimney ends, common to Rhode Island.

A gray, red, or buff clay body that matures (becomes nonporous) between 1900°F and 2300°F.

Stop CockThis is provided before water meter in a chamber with a cover to cut off the supply of water from the street main to the building for repairs to the plumbing system within the building.
StorageSpace planned for keeping foodstuffs, linens, tools, clothing, and other items owned by people. It also refers to needs of a nonresidential interior to keep extra stock merchandise, office supplies, or other goods. Also, the reservoir for storing thermal energy in a solar system.
Storage BuildingsThese shall include any building or part of a building primarily for the storage or sheltering of goods , wares or merchandise , garages , stables etc.
Storage TanksIn the areas , where continuous supply of water is available the pressure of water in the mains may not be adequate to raise the water to upper floors. Thus provision of storage tank is made in a building to ensure availability of water during non supply hours or when the municipal supply is stopped.
StoreyThe portion of a building included between the surface of any floor and the surface of the floor next above it.
Storm WindowsClass or plastic removable windows that add insulation. Summer storm windows are tinted as a shading device.
StoveA freestanding wood- or coal-burning heating unit.
Straight LinesLines that directly connect two points; horizontal and vertical lines.
Straight RunA stair that makes no turns.
Straight-Back SofaA sofa style with the back top being straight, narrow arms extend forward. Some variations have set-back arms and T-cushions for the seat. Find a sofa.
Strapping Tape MethodA temporary method of attaching fabric to a wall. Rolls or circles of strapping tape are affixed to the wall and to the fabric.
StrapworkA narrow band folded, crossed, and sometimes interlaced. Also an ornament consisting of a narrow band in convolutions similar to those of a leather strap thrown at hazard.
StrataLayers or beds of sedimentary rock.
Straw-WorkMethod of decorating furniture in the 17th Century with tiny strips of bleached and colored straws to form landscapes, geometrical patterns, etc.
Strecher CourseIt is a course of brickwork in which all the bricks are laid as strechers.
StreetAny means of access i.e. highway road , lane , pathway over which public have a right of passage.
Strength Or TenacityThe inherent ability of a material to withstand stress without breaking.
StretcherA horizontal brace in an H or X shape connecting the legs of a table or chair. Often decorated with carving or turning.
StretchersCrosspieces used to brace and strengthen table and chair legs.
String CourseIt is a horizontal course of masonry projecting from the face of the wall and is generally at every floor or sill level throughout the length of the wall. It is intended to improve the elevation of the structure.
StringcourseSee beltcourse.
StringerA long horizontal timber used to connect uprights in a frame, or to support a floor.
Strip LightingA lighting fixture in which several lamps or bulbs are aligned in a strip. Used in grooming areas around mirrors.
StrippableA wall covering that can be stripped or completely removed from a wall. Applies to most vinyl wall coverings.
StrippingRemoving the old surface or finish from a piece of furniture.
Structural DesignA basic or general category of design wherein the design is intrinsic to the structure-one cannot be separated without destroying the other.
Structural SystemsThe components of new or remodeling construction that make up the structure: footings and foundation, as well as the framework (or other systems) that supports the building and to which the finish materials are applied.
StructureThe overall character of a rock.
StuccoRough textured plaster or cement for covering walls.
StudA vertical support element made of wood or metal that is used in the construction of walls.
Student DeskThe term normally applies to a small pedestal type of desk or smaller writing table constructed for use by a child or teenager in their bedroom. In most cases these desks are a bit shorter in height than conventional adult desks. Student desks are most commonly made of wood or metal. Find children's furniture.
StyleThe decorative design of an object, room, home, etc.
StylobateThe base upon which the Greek temple rests.
SubcontractorA person who performs a single task in construction such as foundation work, framing, electrical, plumbing, EIVAC, finish work (millwork or woodwork), or tile or floor laying.
SubfloorsThe material (usually wood) nailed to the framework on which the finish floor materials are laid.
SuedeA leather that's produced from a fresh split hide, which has a velvet like nap. Find leather furniture.
SuiteA complete matched set of furniture, such as a bedroom suite.
Sullivan, Louis (1856-1924)Called the Father of American architecture, he felt that the form of a building should follow its function.
Summer BeamThe largest beam spanning wall to wall, supporting the smaller floor joists in seventeenth-century timber-framed homes.
SundialA timepiece that shows the time by a shadow cast by a pointer.
SuperinsulationExtra-heavy insulation of walls, foundations, ceilings, and attic areas to conserve energy; requires thicker than conventional walls.
Surface Treatment FinishesSee mechanical finishes.
Surface-Mounted FixtureA structural or decorative luminaire that is mounted onto the ceiling.
SurroundThe enclosure and area around a tub or shower
Surrounds (Tub Or Shower)The tile, marble, or imitative plastic finish material used to protect the wall against water in showers and bathtub areas.
Suspended FixturesStructural (pendant) or decorative (chandelier) luminaires hung on a cord or chain from the ceiling.
SuspensionThe combination of components such as coils and foam in an upholstered piece of furniture that provide the support and comfort for the seating and back areas.
Sussex ChairA chair with an ash frame and rush seat, based on a traditional country design. Find kitchen chairs.
SwagA fabric that's draped in a looped garland effect or any imitation of the same. Find draperies and curtains.
Swag HoldersMetal hardware that supports swagged fabric.
SwagsAlso called festoons. Semicircles of fabric, folded at the corners to form a soft or precise curved fabric top treatment. Often finished with a cascade on each side of the swag or arrangement of swags.
Swamp CoolerSee evaporative cooling system.
Swan-Neck HandleA curved handle popular in the 1700's.
Swing DoorThis type of door is generally provided in passages of public buildings like offices , banks etc. The door may have single shutter or two shutters. Since these doors are pushed open ,they should have glazed shutters so as to enable the users to see the objects on other side.
Swing LegA hinged table leg (as in a gate leg) which swings out to support a drop leaf.
Swinging Door (One Way)The typical side-hinged door.
Swivel ChairA chair that swivels, such as a swivel office chair or swivel recliner.
SymbolismThe use of historic color where each color held significance or symbolized a value.
SymmetricalA formal, mirror-image balance in design or decorating.
Symmetrical BalanceAlso called bisymmetrical, formal, or passive balance, it is mirror-image arrangement of parts or elements.
SynthesisBringing together the research data in the programming process.
Synthetic FibersThe group of fibers that do not begin as cellulose but as chemicals or other natural elements chemically altered or composed into a viscose solution and extruded through a spinnerette. This group includes nylon, acrylic, modaerylic, polyester, olefin, saran, spandex, vinyon, latex, fiberglass, and metallic fibers. Also known as noncellulosie man-made fibers.
Systems FurnitureComponent pieces that can. be chosen and assembled to create work spaces according to the needs of the user. As needs change, new components can be added and unneeded elements can be eliminated.
T LampTubular shaped lamp or bulb.
Tab CurtainsFlat panel curtains with tabs or strips sewn into loops at the top, then threaded over a dowel rod.
Table AmbulanteA French term for a small, portable occasional table. Find living room furniture.
Table LampA freestanding lamp designed to be placed on a surface such as an end table or nightstand. Find table lamps.
Table Runner

A long, narrow, decorative strip of fabric running down the middle of a table.

TabouretA stool or small seat that can also be used as a stand.
Tackless StripThe thin board with recessed-bead tacks or staples protruding toward the wall. The strip is nailed down and the carpet is attached over the top to hold it in place for wall-to-wall installations over padding.
TaffetaA fine plain-woven fabric that's smooth on both sides.
Tailored UpholsteryA furniture frame which has fabric fitted and permanently attached.

See Highboy

Tambour Desk

A roll-top desk's flexible draw-down cover made of "tambours", which is made up of a succession of narrow strips of flat wood glued to a stiff backing such as canvas. Find home office furniture.

Tape EdgeThe cord-like seam that is stitched around the perimeter of a mattress to join its tops and sides. Find a mattress.
Tapered LegA leg that becomes incrementally smaller towards the bottom.

Traditionally a "heavy" woven fabric featuring decorative designs or pictures to be hung on a wall. Today, the term commonly refers to highly decorative fabrics with a woven design. Find a tapestry.

Tar PaperA heavy, black, waterproof paper applied to the roof before the shingles and sometimes on the outside of foundation walls.
Task Lighting

A lighting source directed to a specific purpose within a room. Reading lights in a living room or under-counter lighting in a kitchen are examples of task lighting.


A straw mat covered with woven rush, approximately 6" x 3", used as flooring material.

Tatami MatsWoven sea grass mats in various thicknesses. A traditional Japanese floor material, they will not hold up to heavy traffic.
Tavern TableA small, sturdy rectangular table on four legs, usually braced by stretchers. Generally features a drawer or two in the apron. Commonly used in taverns of the 18th Century.
Tea CaddyMetal container used to import tea during the eighteenth century, often decorated with oriental motifs and designs.
Tea TableA small portable table, which is frequently used in place of a coffee table. Traditionally the top has raised edges like a tray and side pullouts for candles. Find a coffee or tea table.
TeapoyA small piece of freestanding furniture designed for holding tea.
Technical DrawingsFloor plans, elevations, and detailed drawings of architectural detail, cabinetry, storage, and built-in units.
Tee Cushion (Or T-Cushion)A loose seat cushion with the outside front edges extending laterally in front of the arm of an upholstered piece.
Teen BeddingBedding such as comforters and sheets designed in themes that are generally less elegant or as expensive as adult bedding sets, yet not childish like children's bedding. Find teen bedding.
Telephone SystemA network of connected telephones within a building or office.
TemperaPaint made with pigment mixed with egg and thinned with water.
Tempered GlassGlass toughened by heating and rapid cooling.
TemplateBlock of stone or concrete of designed dimensions used under a beam or girder to distribute the concentrated load at the end of the beam or girder over a greater area of bearing surface.
Tenant ImprovementThe designer works with the client who will occupy a nonresidential space. The design work within an established budget is paid for by the developer.
TenderA state of weakness in a fabric wherein it easily can tear.
TenonThe projecting member of a piece of wood, which is inserted into a mortise to create a secure joint.
Tensile System ConstructionA tentlike building system.
Tenure-Track PositionA full-time college or university appointment that offers tenure, or the status of holding one's Position on a permanent basis.
TergalA registered trademark of Rhodiaceta for polyester.
Terra CottaLow-fired ceramic ware that is often reddish and unglazed.
Terra SigillataA thin coating of colored clay or clays applied with a glaze. A terra sigillata solution is composed of fine particles of decanted clay and water.
Terrace HousesMatching row houses that became popular in England during the eighteenth century.
Terra-CottaAn Italian term for cooked earth used to describe hard, durable reddish brown clay products, such as that used to make roof tiles.
TerrazzoA floor or wall finish made by setting marble or other stone chips into a layer of mortar and polishing the surface.
Territorial StyleThe later, more classical version of the Southwest Adobe-style houses of New Mexico.
TerritorialityPersonal kittacbment to a certain territory or space.
Terry ClothA pile fabric with uncut loops, used for towels.
Tertiary ColorColor created by mixing of two secondary colors.
Tertiary HuesSee intermediate hues.
TeryleneA registered trademark of ICI for polyester.
TesseraePieces of colored glass and stone used to make mosaics.
TesterA wooden frame for supporting draperies or a canopy at the top of a poster bed.
Tetrad ComplementA variation of a direct complementary scheme consisting of four colors equidistant (equally spaced) on the color wheel.
TexturaA registered trademark of Hoeschst for polyester.
TextureThe relative smoothness or roughness of a surface read by the eye (visual texture) or with the hand (tactile texture). Texture is produced in several ways: by material, color, line, relief, and finish.
Texture (Fabric)In fabric, is the surface quality of a material.
Texture (Stone)In stone, texture is the characteristics of a rock given by the size and shape of its grains.
Textured FinishIn this finish , ornamental patterns or textured surfaces are produced by working with various tools on the freshly applied final coat.
TexturizingAdding crimp, kink, or waviness to a man-made monofilarnent thread or yarn to increase bulk and loftiness and to add textural interest. An uneven surface applied to drywall or sheetrock by blowing on a thin plaster mixture, then sanding it semismooth.
Texturizing PaintThick paint that can be applied to imitate stucco.
Thatched RoofA roof covered with reeds or straw intended to shed water.
Thematic DesignInterior design based on a theme, such as traditional, country, or ethnic.
Therm LegTerm refers to a square or four cornered tapered leg used on chairs or tables.
Thermal PaneA type of double glazing in which two layers of glass are produced with a pocket of air for insulation.
ThermoplasticsPlastics that change their form by heating.
Thermoset PlasticsPlastic compounds that are hardened by heat.
ThermosiphoningA passive solar system of collecting heat through spaces in the walls or roof, then drawing the heat into ducts and forcing it into the interior through fans and registers.
ThermostatA device that controls the furnace or air-conditioning by maintaining a preset temperature.
Thin Shell Membrane ConstructionA self-supporting membrane of reinforced (mesh) concrete or sprayed foam.
Thonet, Michael (1796-1871)A German craftsman best known for his bentwood furniture designs.
Three-Way SwitchA type of switch commonly found on lamps that allows three different degrees or levels of light.
Through StoneA stone passing through a wall from front to back face and acting as a binder for the two faces of the wall is termed as through stone.

A lightweight fabric item meant to be used as a light blanket or as a decorative element commonly placed at the foot of a bed or draped over the back of a sofa. Throws usually measure about 64" x 72" in size. Find a throw.

Throw PillowA small square or round decorative pillow usually found on sofas, chairs, or beds.
Thrown ChairA chair constructed from turned pieces of wood.
ThumbpieceA flange attached to a hinged lid, which when pressed by the thumb raises the lid.
TiebackA decorative fabric, cord or metal hook used to hold a drapery open.
Tieback DraperiesPanels of pleated or shirred fabric tied back at a soft curve and held with ties (strips of fabric), or cords, or metal holdbacks.
Tieback HoldersConcealed hardware to hold the ties or decorative metal rosettes that hold the draperies in the tieback position.
Tie-DyeA hand process for coloring fabric where a fabric is folded into various shapes, then tied in spots with string and immersed in a dye bath. Where the folds and tied portions arc thick, the dye will not penetrate, creating interesting abstract patterns.
Tiered CurtainsShort curtains layered to overlap vertically.
TightAn interior that is sealed or that has few or no windows for natural ventilation; requires HVAC system or air-exchange units for fresh air.
Tight SeatUpholstered furniture which has the fabric pulled directly over the springs, with layer of padding in between, and padding over the springs.
Tight-Back SofaA sofa with a back that is totally smooth with no indentations. Find a sofa.
TileSmall, flat finishing units made of clay or clay mixtures.
Tilt TopA small occasional table with a hinged top that can stand vertically when not in use. Find living room tables.
Tilt-Down TrayThe hinged, flat panel in front of the sink that tilts down to reveal a small storage pocket.
TimberWood suitable for construction or a finish carpentry.
Timber FrameA frame of heavy timbers used as the structure system for a building.
Timbering Of TrenchesIt is also known as shoring , consists of a temporary arrangement of boardings or poling boards, wailings and struts provided to give support to the sides of trench.

Any color mixed with white (i.e. all pastel colors are tints).

To Finished Floor

The phrase "to finished floor" is often used in the beginning stages of construction before the final surface is placed as the flooring. This is to insure that the measurements taken for other items in the space will be the correct dimensions when the final flooring is installed.

Toe KickA toe kick is a 3-4' space or recessed panel on the front of a piece of furniture that allows room to stand as well as protect the furniture from being scratched or marked.
Toe-Kick Or Riser LightingLighting in the toe-kick area beneath a counter, or on the stair riser just beneath the tread.
Toe-Mold LightingLighting under the toe-kick area of stairs or cabinets.

Also known as Toile do Jouy, is a type of fabric decorating pattern usually on a white or off-white background that features a repeating landscape or pastoral pattern in a single color.

Toile (Toile De Jouy)A plain-woven cotton fabric printed with a repeat pattern of country settings, animals, people or other objects printed on a solid background of one color in another color.
TokonomaA small, alcove with a low, raised platform reserved for display of aesthetic and sacred objects in the traditional Japanese home.

Any color mixed with grey (most warm-looking colors are tones).

Tongue & Groove (Or Matching)Wood pieces that join on edge with a groove in one piece and a corresponding tongue on the other to interlock. Commonly used on furniture doors for example.
Tongue And GrooveStrips of wood milled to fit together and interlock with a filet and a groove.
Tongue-And-GrooveA tight joint created by fitting together a tongue on one end of a board with a groove on the other end. Common for floors, paneling, and wainscoting.
Tongue-And-Groove JoineryA joinery technique in which a protruding end (tongue) fits into a recess (groove), locking the two pieces together.
Tooled SurfaceIn this type of surface finish continuous parallel chisel marks are produced throughout the width of the stone. The parallel corrugations or chisel ,arks are made at closer intervals rendering the surface truly planned.
Top Grain LeatherThe uppermost layer of a hide, which is the highest quality part of the hide and the most preferred for leather upholstery. Find leather furniture.
Top TreatmentsAny fabric used as a short covering at the top or above a window or window treatment.

A floor lamp that directs light upward to provide ambient room lighting.

Torchiere LampA floor lamp that directs light upward from a reflective bowl or inverted cone shade. Find a torchiere lamp.
TorehereIn history a tall candlestand. Today a floor lamp that casts light upward onto the ceiling.
Tower BoltIn this type , the bolt passes through two or three stapples attached to the base plate. The plate is screwed to inside face of door shutter and the bolt engages in a metal socket screwed to the frame.
Town HouseAnother term for a dwelling that is narrow, one or two room(s) wide, and two or three stories high. It shares walls with one or two similar town houses, and one roof spans all the units.
TraceryA term used to describe the lacelike ornamentation in stone or woodwork of Gothic design, often seen in windows.
Track LightingLighting that utilizes a fixed band that supplies a current to movable light fixtures.

A straight, squared off arm,usually found on more contemporary sofas and armchairs.

Trade SourcesWholesale companies that market goods and services to the trade or the interior design profession.
Trademarks Or Trade NamesNames given by chemical companies to a generic fiber that identifies it as their product. Trademarks are registered with the Federal Trade Commission and may be accompanied by a small TM following the name.
TraditionalTraditionally styled furniture is available in both original antique pieces and quality reproductions. This type of furniture usually follows a particular period style such as Georgian, Tudor, Regency or Louis XV.
TrafficMovement of users through an area or along a route.
Traffic PatternThe flow or direction in which people move through a room.
TrailUndulating bands of formal looking leaf, berry or floral patterns.
TranseptsThe part of a cross-shaped church that extends at right angles to the nave. (The arms of the cross.)
TransitionA type of rhythm that leads the eye without interruption from one point or area to another.
TransitionalA style of design that blends influences from various style categories.
Transmission LossThe reduction in the intensity of airborne sound that takes place during its transmission from the source to the recipient is called transmission loss.
TransomA window over a door.
TransportMoving the sun's heat through a liquid medium to the storage area in an active solar system unit.
Transportation DesignA facet of nonresidential design: airlines, buses, trains, and automobiles.
TrapA trap is a fitting provided in a drainage to prevent entry of foul air or gases from the sewer or drain into the building.
Travel DistanceThe distance from the remotest point on a floor of a building to a place of safety be it a vertical exit , horizontal exit or an outside exit measured along the line of travel.
Traverse DraperyA drapery that opens or closes across a window by means of the traverse rod from which it is hung. Find drapes and curtains.
Traverse RodsRods equipped with cords and pulleys to draw draperies opened and closed.
TravertineA light-colored limestone used for nonresilient floors and hard wall materials.
TreadThe horizontal upper part of a step on which foot is placed in ascending or descending stairway.
TreenailA wooden peg made from dry compressed timber, made to swell when placed in its hold and moistened.
Tree-Of-LifeTerm refers to a carved tree or vine design with fruit and often birds or animals in foliage.
TrefoilA three-leaved or three-cusped ornament usually contained within a circle.
TrespoloElegant three-legged tables usually designed to stand against a wall.
TrestleA braced frame, forming the whole support for a table top.
Trestle TableA long narrow table with two T-shaped uprights that are joined by a single stretcher for added support. Find a dining table.
Triadic ComplementThree colors equidistant (equally spaced) on the color wheel, such as red, yellow, and blue.
Triangular PedimentA pediment in the shape of a triangle.
Tri-Fold Mirror (Or Tri-View)A mirror that sits on or hangs above a dresser and features a center mirror panel and two mirrored side panels that produce three images of the person looking in the mirror. Find a dresser mirror.
TriforiumA gallery above the arches of the arcade in the nave of a church.
TriglyphsThe three decorative vertical grooves on the frieze of the Doric entablature.
TrimDecorative elements such as fringe on an accent pillow or moldings on a bookcase.
Triple GlazingThree layers of window glass for insulation.
Triple RollA roil or bolt of wall covering containing approximately 108 square feet, or three times the area of a single roll.
TripodA small table or stand with a round top supported by a three-legged pillar, originally made for serving tea. Adam and Chippendale favored it. Find an end table.
Tripod Pedestal TableA three-legged table; the legs converge to form a single pedestal.
TriptychA three-paneled artwork. Historically, triptychs were hinged together so that the two side wings closed over the central panel.
TrivetTraditionally a three legged stand or small table that normally flanked a fireplace. Term today often refers to a wall decoration or accessory for placing a hot dish on a table.
Trombe WallsA passive solar system of glass (that collects and amplifies heat) placed in front of a dark masonry wall (that absorbs and slowly releases the heat into the interior).
Trompe L’Oeil

Literally, 'fool the eye'. (French). An object or scene rendered so realistically that the viewer believes he or she is seeing the real thing.

Trompe L'oeil

French term meaning 'fool the eye'. Trompe l'oeil is usually a two-dimensional painting designed to look like a three-dimensional object or scenery.

Trompe L'oeil

Fool the eye. Using paint techniques to imply a realistic, 3-dimensional scene on a flat surface.

Trompe NeilFrench for "fool the eye"; a painted mural in which realistic images and the illusion of three-dimensional space are created.
TrophiesMounted fish, animals, animal heads, and skins.
True DividerWindows glazed with individual panes, rather than snap-in grids.
TrumeauThe stone mullion supporting the middle of a tympanum of a doorway.
Trumpet LegA leg that's shaped like a trumpet and having its characteristic flared profile.
Trundle BedA low bed that can be rolled under another bed for storage when not in use. Find bedroom furniture.
TrunkCommonly a rectangular container like open chest with a hinged top for holding clothes or other personal belongings. Trunks are commonly used for extended periods away from home such as a long trip abroad. However, they can also be used for home decorating in entryways, as coffee tables, etc.
Trunk SewerIt is a main sewer which receives discharges from all the smaller sewers and conveys it to a sewage treatment plant or to the point of final disposal.
TrussAn assembly of members combined to form a rigid framework, interconnected to form triangles.
Trussed PartitionsIn places where the provision of solid support below the sill is not possible, the wooden trussed partitions have to be employed. The weight from the trussed partition walls is borne by the side walls and thus it may be constructed quite independent of the floor.
TrussesTriangular reinforcing in wood or metal that distributes the load effectively. A framework for supporting a roof.
Tuck PointingIn this , the mortar is first pressed in the raked joints and there after it is finished flush with the face of the wall.
Tuckaway TableA hinged leaf gate-leg table with cross legs which fold into each other as compactly as if tucked away.
Tudor RoseA decorative motif compounded of the white rose and red rose.
Tudor-ElizabethanThis phase of the English renaissance covered the 1500's on up to about 1603. Furniture shapes are straight and stiff (like Gothic), and feature elaborate carving and decoration. All pieces of this style are massive and normally constructed of oak. All chairs, tables, and cabinets of this style feature sturdy underbracing.
Tuft BindA measurement indicating the strength of the latex layer that holds tufts of carpet yarns in place.
Tufted CarpetsThe method by which most carpeting is produced for both residential and nonresidential interiors. Multiple needles threaded with yarn are simultaneously punched into a loosely woven primary backing. The tufts are held in place with a layer of latex, then adhered to Secondary backing of jute or polypropylene.
TuftingA process in which the pile yarn is punched through the backing with rows of needles, much like the method employed by a sewing machine.
Tufting & ButtoningA method of securing the filling of an upholstered piece of furniture by pulling stitches through the material and securing them to the frame. The evenly spaced tufting is then finished with buttons, which are usually upholstered.
Tufts Or Stitches Per Square InchA measurement indicating the density of the tufts or woven stitches in carpeting.
TulipA decorative design in the shape of a tulip that's carved or painted on American furniture, especially Shaker.
Tungsten FilamentAnother name for incandescent lighting.
Tungsten Halogen LampLamp in which the filament is surrounded with. halogen gas that reacts with the tungsten, producing a bright light.
TurnedWood or other materials shaped by tools while revolving around a fixed axis, usually a lathe. Cylindrical forms (dowels, rungs) and circular designs (bowls) are made in this way.
TurningThe lathing to shape table and chair legs, etc.
TurningsDecorative spindles formed by turning a piece of wood on a lathe and cutting designs into the wood with a sharp knife or chisel as the piece spins.
TurpentineIt is the most common thinner used in the preparation of an oil paint. It is a spirit obtained by distilling balsam , which is the resin or gum obtained from pine tree.
TuscanA plain and unfluted column, the Tuscan is the simplest of the architectural orders.
Tusk Tennon JointThis type is commonly adopted in the construction of timber floors. In order to obtain maximum rigidity and strength , the tennon must be mortised in the center of the members to be tenoned.
TuxedoA sofa or chair design with a square frame created by the arm and back rests being equal in height.
Tuxedo ArmsArms found on upholstered pieces that are slightly flared and are the same height as the back.
Tv ArmoireAn entertainment center made to hold a TV in the style of an armoire. Find a TV armoire.
Tv StandA small, low cabinet used to set a TV on. TV stands often have shelves or doors for additional storage. Find a TV stand.
TwillA fabric that is diagonally ribbed, therefore a strong weave.
Twill WeaveThe interlacing of yarns in a sequence such as three over, one under, which creates a distinct diagonal rib or wale. A novelty twill may reverse, creating fabrics such as herringbone or houndstooth.
Twin Bed

A bed made for one person, sometimes called a single. Twin mattresses measure 38"x75". Find a twin mattress.

Twin Extra Long

A twin mattress that measures 38"x80". Find a mattress.

Twin GlazingSee double glazing.
Twin HomeA dwelling that may adjoin only one other dwelling. A semi-detached house.
TwistlocA registered trademark of Monsanto for polyester.
Two Pipe SystemThis is the traditional system of removing the discharge from sanitary fitting wherein the foul matter from W.C and urinals is discharged into one pipe (known as soil pipe) and the waste water from kitchen , bath , floor traps etc. (other than W.C and urinals) is discharged into another pipe(known as waste pipe).
UltronA registered trademark of Monsanto for nylon.
Under-CoatAfter the primary coat is dry , second coat or under-coatings are applied on the primed surface. The color of the under-coat should approximately be of the same shade as that of the desired finish. It should be a thin opaque film , free from brush marks.
Under-DraperyA lightweight, usually a sheer drapery that hangs behind the heavier over-drapery. Find draperies and curtains.
Under-PinningThis term is applied to the building of new work underneath an existing structure without disturbing its stability. It may be necessary when defective foundation of a wall is to be replaced with new foundation or when the existing foundation of a wall is required to be strengthened to enable it to carry more loads.
UndertonesThe addition of a small amount of one hue to another, rendering the latter slightly warm or cool.
Unfinished FurnitureFurniture made from wood that hasn't been treated with any type of finish, which allows the buyer to stain or finish the furniture to their particular taste. Find unfinished furniture.
UnityA component of harmony (an element of design) that provides a change or relief from sameness in an interior through differences in the design and furnishing elements.
Universal DesignDesign that meets the needs of all users, without drawing attention to those with disabilities.
Upholstered CorniceA wooden top treatment that is padded, then covered with a decorative top treatment.
Upholstered WallsPadded, then fabric-covered walls.

The process of fitting furniture, usually seating, with padding, springs, and webbing, with a fabric or leather cover.

UplightAlso used to describe the lights themselves, this is actually the term for light that is directed upward toward the ceiling.
Uplighters Or UplightingCanisters, spotlights, or floodlights that cast light upward to the wall or ceiling.
UprightsThe outer vertical posts of a chair.
Urethane FoamSynthetic foam used for carpet and upholstery padding.
Urethane Foam (Polyurethane)Flexible polyurethane foam is used as a cushioning material in upholstered furniture seats, backs and arms. For seat cushioning, foams that have a density of 1.8 pounds per cubic foot or higher offer the best support and durability.
UrinalsThey fall under the category of soil appliance and as such the discharge from urinals is connected to soil pipe either directly or through a trap provided with gun-metal or bass domed shaped removable grating.
UrnTerm refers to a vase shaped decorative ornament, commonly found as the finial of a broken pediment.
UserAnyone who will use a completed design.
User FriendlyComputer hardware and software that are relatively uncomplicated and easy to operate.
U-StairA stair that makes a 180-degree turn at a single landing.
VacuformingA process of forming plastic in a mold in which all the air is drawn out to form a vacuum that forces the plastic around the mold.

 A decorative window treatment mounted across the top of a window (outside the casing). Usually combined with blinds, curtain panels,or sheers.

Valance LightingA light over the top of a window placed behind a hoard that directs light both upward and downward.
ValueThe lightness or darkness of a color.
Value ContrastHues or neutrals that differ in value. Iow-value contrast is seen when light and dark values are used together; low-value contrast refers to similar hues or neutral values.
Value DistributionThe placement of differing values in an interior to create a balanced and pleasing effect.
VanityThe countertop and cabinet used to support a sink in a bathroom. Find bathroom furniture.
Vanity TableNormally a small table with a drawer and mirror for use in a woman's or girl's bedroom for doing their hair, applying makeup, etc. Find a vanity table.
Vapor BarrierA heavy-gauge plastic applied to walls or insulative window treatments to prevent moisture and air penetration.
VarguenoA fall or drop front desk of Spanish origin. Popular in the 16th and 17 Centuries.
VarietyA subelement of harmony made possible through repetition or similarity of objects or elements in an interior.
VarnishA coating that lacks pigment, offering a transparent finish for a wood surface.

A decorative container or urn, often used to display floral arrangements.

VasselierA traditional French style china cupboard/hutch and buffet. Find a china cabinet.
VaultA ceiling constructed on the principle of an arch. An arched roof.
Vaulted System ConstructionA tunnel-like arch system of building.
VectraA registered trademark of Veara for olefin.
Vegetable DyeDye colors that are derived from the natural pigments of plants and botanical products.
VehicleIn painting, the binding agent that holds the particles of pigment together and creates the film that adheres to the surface being painted.
Veiling GlareThe reflecting of a light source from a shiny surface into the line of vision.
VelocityThe medium in which the sound is traveling and the temperature of the medium.

A plush fabric with a short dense pile.

Velvet Weave CarpetA cut-pile woven carpet with no design. Colors are solid or utilize variegated yarns.
VeneerDecorative or prized wood cut very thin and applied to an inferior wood.
Venetian BlindA window treatment consisting of a series of horizontal slats that can be turned or raised to control light or privacy. Find window blinds.
Venetian GlassDelicate and fine glassware made at or near Venice, Italy. A term used to describe glass mirrors with an antique or veined appearance.
VentilationNatural fresh air through windows or through a central HVAC unit that circulates clean air through a building.
VentingA natural hairline crack in the stone.
VerandaA long covered porch along the front and/or side of a building.

The greenish-blue patina that forms on oxidized copper, brass,or bronze surfaces.

VerelA registered trademark of Eastman Kodak for modacrylic.
VernacularA type of building method common to a specific region, often build with wood indigenous to the area.
Vertical LinesUp-and-down lines that lift the eye, and give dignity and formality to interiors.
Vertical LouversMovable louvered blinds with vertical, rather than horizontal, slats.
Vertically RunA fabric that's been applied with the warp threads (bolt length) running top to bottom over the furniture's back, front and arms.
VestibuleAn air-lock entry consisting of two doors and a compartment-like room that prevents excessive heat or cold from entering the building.
VictorianA furniture style named after England's Queen Victoria, which was very popular through the latter half of the 1800's. Victorian furniture was usually constructed of mahogany, walnut and rosewood in dark finishes, which were often highlighted with elaborate carved floral designs. Common elements of this style include oval chair backs and marble tops on tables and dressers.
Victorian Era (1837-1901)The English and American era that coincided with the reign of Queen Victoria. It paralleled the Industrial Revolution, during which time many styles were seen. Victorian design is characterized by revivals of nearly every previous historical style, together with rapid technological development.
Vienna SecessionA group of young Viennese artists and craftsmen including Otto Wagner, Josef Hoffmann, and joseph Maria Olbrich who broke away from the mainstream of traditional art and design around 1897. The group eventually evolved into a more formal workshop?the Wiener Werkstate headed by Josef Hoffmann.
VigaA heavy rafter, most commonly a log, used for roof support in southwestern architecture.
VignetteA display of furniture and furnishings in a store or showroom that is done to simulate an actual room.

Furniture and decorative elements that are between 10 and 100 years old. Often found at flea markets, garage sales,and specialty vintage retailers.

VinylPolymerized vinyl (ethylene), essentially a plastic compound, extruded into sheets for floor and as wall coverings; also a coating for wall coverings and fabrics.
Vinyl CompositionA resilient hard flooring of vinyl and other compounds.
Vinyl Latex Wall CoveringsWall coverings that are vinyl through to the backing, which is usually a fabric. They are usually very durable, heavy, and scrubbable.
Vinyl TileExtruded vinyl sheets cut into square tiles.
Vinyl Wall CoveringsAny wall covering with a vinyl surface, including vinyl-protected, vinyl latex, and coated fabric wall coverings.
Vinyl WrapFlexible vinyl wrapping applied to underlying wood solids or particleboard to produce a surface that most often resembles wood.
Vinyl-Protected Wall CoveringsWall coverings, usually paper, with a coating of vinyl, which makes the covering washable.
VinyonA synthetic vinyl chloride long-chain polymer generally extruded in sheet form, and often imitating leather, suede, or nearly any surface texture. Often called vinyl or PVC (polyvinyl chloride).
Vis-A-VisA tete-a-tete chair in which two sitters face oppositely.
ViscoelasticHeat sensitive, polyurethane foam. Often referred to as visco or memory foam. Find a viscoelastic mattress.
Visual ProportionThe way a proportion might appear regardless of actual dimensions or proportions.
Visual WeightThe weight or scale an object appears to have, regardless of actual weight.
VitreographA print made from a glass plate that has been prepared by sandblasting or etching.
VitreousClay fired to maturity, so that it is hard, dense, and nonabsorbent.
VitrifyTo change into a glasslike ceramic by high heat.

A glass-doored cabinet for display.

Vitruvian ProportionsCorrect classical proportions as recorded by Vitruvius.
VitruviusA first-century Roman architect and writer responsible for standardizing classical architectural forms.
VoileA sheer lightweight fabric used to make sheets, pillows, shams, duvet covers, and draperies for canopy beds.
Volts Or VoltageThe measurement of power that comes through the power line.
VolumeIs the true three-dimensional aspect of interior design because an object with volume is clearly perceived as a spatial form having length, width, and depth.
VoluteA spiral, scroll-like ornament on Iconic and Corinthian capitals.
VolutesThe scroll-like details on the capital of a Ionic column.
VycronA registered trademark of Beatinit for polyester.
Wabi-SabiRepresenting a Japanese worldview, it's a style of perceiving art and beauty that pervades all things imperfect, impermanent and incomplete.
WainscotA wainscot, usually wood panels, are applied on the lower portion of a wall below the chair rail, and above the base molding. It is a different material then the rest of the wall.
Wainscot ChairAn Elizabethan oak chair with a back that's paneled like wainscoting on a wall. These chairs are quite massive and ornately carved with strap work.
WainscotingWood panels or boards that cover the lower portion of a wall, often capped with molding.

Panelling on the lower half of a wall that differs from the upper half. Usually separated by a chair rail.

WaleA pronounced rib or raised cord that may run vertically with the warp, horizontally with the filling threads or weft, or diagonally as in a twill weave.
Walk-ThroughA final inspection of the job to be sure that everything ordered is present, and that any omissions or damaged goods are noted.
Wall ClockAny type of clock that's made specifically for hanging on a wall. Find a wall clock.
Wall CompositionThe arrangement of furniture, architectural openings, and accessories against a wall.
Wall CoveringsPaper, fabric, or vinyl rolls or bolts prepared for gluing onto the wall
Wall MirrorAny type of mirror that's designed to be hung on a wall. Find a wall mirror.
Wall SculptureA decorative wall hanging made from any material including wood, metal and synthetic materials. Find a wall sculpture.
Wall UnitsLarge free-standing or wall hung units which can have drawers, shelves, cabinets, desks, entertainment centers or other features.
Wall WasherA general term for a series of Lights that wash a wall. These may be recessed adjustable lights or eyeball spotlights, for example.
WallboardA term for rigid wall materials installed in sheets or boards: sheetrock (gypsum board), masonite, paneling. Also called drywall.
WallpaperIs available in a range of colors, patterns, textures, and materials for direct application to plaster or gypsum wallboard partitions.

A tall enclosed cabinet with doors, used for storing clothing and linens. Also see Armoire.

Warm ColorsThe hues on the color wheel generally considered to produce feelings of warmth. They are red-violet, red, red-orange, orange, yellow-orange, yellow, and yellow-green.
Warm White Deluxe Fluorescent LampContains a warm light spectrum similar to incandescent lighting.
Warp (Or Weft)The yarns running lengthwise in a piece of fabric, i.e., perpendicular to the woof (or welt).
Warp Threads Or YarnsThe lengthwise or vertical fabric yarns that are threaded onto the loom and form the basis for woven cloth.
WashA soft plane of light from spotlights or track lighting.
Wash StandA cupboard or chest of drawers on four legs with a basin sunk into the top. These were specially adapted for bedroom use after 1750.
WashableA wallpaper term meaning that the paper can be gently cleaned with a little soap and water.
Water ClosetA toilet.
WatercolorWatercolor paints are made with pigments dispersed in gum arabic and are characterized by luminous transparency.
Waterfall SkirtA skirt on an upholstered piece of furniture that falls from the top of the base below the cushion line to the floor without interruption.
WaterproofingCoating the building's foundation with a tar mixture or with tar paper.
Water-Repellent FinishA functional, wet, or standard finish that allows the fabric to shed or repel moisture and stain due to condensation or excessive humidity.
Watt Or WattageA unit of electric power equal to the power of one ampere (amp) as compared to one volt.
WattleA panel of woven sticks used as infill for timber framing or as fencing material.
Wattle And DaubWoven sticks smeared with clay to fill the spaces between the posts and beams of half-timbered homes.
WeatherstrippingThin strips of insulation, usually with a sticky side, that insulate around windows and doors to prevent cold air infiltration.
WeavingIs the traditional method of making carpet by interlacing warp and weft yarns.
WebbingInterwoven strips of material attached to a frame; used for support in upholstery pieces in place of traditional spring systems.
Weft Threads Or YarnsInserted into the opened shed of warp threads to create a woven fabric. Also called filling yarns.
Wegner, Hans (B. 1914)Important Danish furniture craftsman, designer of several modern classic pieces.
Wellington ChestA tall, narrow, relatively plain type of chest named after the Duke of Wellington. Find a chest of drawers.
Welsh CupboardA cabinet with a large enclosed storage base and upper area with open shelves.
WeltA fabric-covered piping cord sewn between two pieces of the covering in upholstery.
Welting (Or Piping)A cord wrapped in fabric, which is used to trim upholstery seams and places where the fabric meets with exposed wood.
Wetfinishes See standard finishes.
What-NotA mobile stand/cart with open shelves. In use after 1800 for books, decorative accents, etc.
WheatTerm refers to carved ornamentations representing three ears of wheat. This motif was extensively used by Hepplewhite.
WhitewareA generic term for white clay bodies.
WhitewashWhite wash is a mixture with lime that is used to lighten or whiten walls
WickerFurniture, baskets, or other objects woven from twigs.
Wicker FurnitureFurniture woven from materials such as willow, reed, and rattan. Find wicker and rattan furniture.
Wiener WerkstateSee Vienna Secession.
William & MaryThis style is named after the 17th Century English King and Queen. This style came to America in the early 1700's. Common pieces of this style included high-backed upholstered armchairs, highboys, lowboys, etc. The elements of this design include features such as curved lines, marquetry, bun or ball feet, inlay and oriental lacquer-work.
Williamsburg StyleA style of decor inspired by the early colonial settlement of Williamsburg, Virginia.
WiltonBroadloom loop-pile carpeting woven on a Jacquard loom. All colors used in the carpeting are carried beneath the carpet face, creating a thick, heavy carpet.
WindbreakTrees, hedges, or fences that provide protection from wind.
Window SillThe horizontal ridge or shelf beneath the glass, usually within the frame.
Window Treatment

A window treatment is a covering or decorative accessory for your windows. They are usually blinds, fabric or shades.

Window WellsThe corrugated metal or concrete form that keeps dirt away from basement windows.
Windsor ChairA style of wooden chair originating in the early 1700's, which is still very popular today that features a spindle back shaped in fans, hoops or combs. This style was named for Windsor Castle but gained true popularity in America. Woods used included birch, pine, hickory, ash, maple and oak. Find dining room chairs.
Wine RackA rack for storing bottles of wine. Wine racks can vary in size from a small rack used on a kitchen counter to something as large as a big bookcase. Find a wine rack.
Wine TableTraditionally a horseshoe shaped serving table for serving wine and hor d'oeuvres.
Wing ChairAn upholstered easy chair with a high back and wings on each side for resting the head.
Wing Chair (Wing-Back Chair)A high backed upholstered chair featuring rolled arms and wing shaped protrusions that extend over the arms at the head level. Introduced in America around the early 1700's. Find a wing back chair.
Wing-Back ChairA high, traditional chair that features projections on either side at head level.
Wire ConstructionSee round wire tufting weaving.
Wiring PlanThe portion of the blueprints or working drawings that indicate placement of all electric wiring, fixtures, switched outlets, and connections. Also called the lighting plan.
Wood BlindsThin flat slats of wood made into miniblinds. They take more stacking space and are more costly than metal miniblinds.
Wood FillerA paste or liquid used in the wood-finishing process to fill the natural pores of the wood and create a smooth surface.
Wood Frame Or Wood Truss SystemThe conventional system of framing a building with wood studs, joists, rafters, and beams, reinforced with the herringbone (zigzag) truss system between joists.
Wood GrainingBrushing on a glaze and drawing wood grains and lines with an artist's brush.
Wood MoldingNarrow strips of concave and/or convex wood molding. May also be plastic.
Wood- Or Coal-Burning StoveA self-contained so we, usually of cast-iron, that burns wood or coal for space heating.
Wood PlankFlooring of strips of wood. Planks may be laid in even width strips or random plank (three different widths).
Wood RodsCurtain and drapery rods of solid wood, often fluted.
WoodcutA relief printing process in which a picture or design is cut in relief along the grain of a wood block.
WoofThe yarns running crosswise on a piece of woven fabric that interlace with the warp (or weft).
WoolNatural protein staple fibers taken from the fleece of sheep and the hairs of goats. Wool?absorbent, resilient, and flame resistant?is woven and knitted into high-quality textiles for both residential and nonresidential use. Used for carpeting, Oriental and folk rugs, wall coverings, and some window covering fabrics.
Wool RugsA term for natural fiber rugs or carpeting left in its undyed state. The most common is the berber rug.
Word-Processing ProgramsSoftware programs that offer options in text writing.
Work ZonesAreas for tasks such as food preparation, office work.
Working DrawingsThe final mechanical drawings that are used to obtain bids and construct a design.
Worm HolesSmall holes found in wood, considered a defect in many instances and a character-providing element in others such as rustic furniture pieces.
Wrap GroupBedroom furniture that's usually designed for children's bedrooms to go against the walls so it can wrap around a room. Wrap groups often include small chests, dressers, student desks and hutches. They make a great use of limited space and provide a lot of storage.
Wren, Sir Christopher (1632-1723)One of England's most important and influential architects, responsible for building London's City churches after the great fire of 1666.
Wright, Frank Lloyd (1869-1959)A great American architect who believed that a building should relate to its setting. Fie designed the complete building, including interiors and furniture.
Wrinkle-Resistant FinishTreating a fabric with a functional finish process so it does not easily wrinkle.
Writing DeskA smaller sized desk or table commonly used for personal use such as writing letters or paying bills. Find a writing desk.
Wrought IronIron that is welded and forged into different shapes.
X-BaseA crossed frame supporting a table, chair, or bench that spans diagonally from both sides.

An 'X' shaped folding chair. X-chairs date back to ancient Egypt, Rome and the Middle Ages.


An elemental gas used in flash lamps and arc lamps.

X-StretcherA crossed stretcher at the bottom of a chair or table.
Yarn DyeingColoring yarn before it is woven or knitted into a fabric.
Yin And Yang

Chinese philosophy terms used to describe how polar or contrary forces are interconnected in the natural world. In the design world yin and yang are often used to explain the motivation behind Feng Shui principles.

Yorkshire ChairAn oak chair featuring turned front legs and stretchers. Native of Yorkshire, England during the 17th Century.
Yorkshire DresserA dresser or cupboard, of oak or deal with a low back.
Yo-Yo EffectUneven high and low areas along the bottom hemline of a draped fabric due to alternating humidity absorption and drying.
Yucca Plant

A genus of perennial shrubs and trees in the agave family. Found in hot, dry climates, and notable for long,spiky leaves. The yucca flower is the state flower of New Mexico.

ZapataCarved decorative corbel on the porch of the Southwest Adobe house.

Wood that resembles the striping of a zebra, with dark stripes on a light background. Found on contemporary furniture pieces and decorative wall panelling.

ZeflonA registered trademark of Dow Badische for nylon.
ZefranA registered trademark of Dow Badische for nylon, acrylic, and polyester.
ZenMeditation school of East Asian Buddhism.
ZenanaFurniture that was reserved for the part of a home in which women and girls were secluded in ancient Persia.
Zero-Clearance Fireplace UnitA fireplace unit that can be set into combustible walls with no clearance.
ZigzagA molding or stitching with a series of frequent sharp turns from side to side.
Zigzag LinesLines that reverse upon themselves in a regular order, such as a herringbone pattern, or in an irregular order, such as a flame pattern.
ZonesAreas that have similar functions or purposes, such as work zones, social zones, private zones, and storage zones.