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Pad PaintingThe application of paint with a flat fibrous pad.
PaddingA general term for carpet underlay or the cushioning layer covering the springs in upholstery.
PaintA liquid oil-, water-, resin-, alkyd-, acrylic-, or epoxy-based material that is applied by spraying, brushing, rolling, or pad painting. Dries to a flat, semigloss, gloss, or high-gloss finish.
PaintingA one-of-a-kind, two-dimensional art form created with color pigments and a number of different substances (vehicles) that give the paint form and body.
Palette KnifeA small, usually flexible knife used to mix paint on the artist's paint tray (palette) or to apply paint to the surface being painted.
Palette TheoryAnother name for the Standard Color Wheel theory.
Palisade WallA paneled fireplace wall formed of boards and battens.
Palladian WindowA three-part window in which the center window is arched and larger than two smaller, often-rectangular windows flanking it on either side.
PalladiumA photographic process in which the image is produced by palladium crystals deposited on the paper.
PanelA flat, rectangular piece of material that forms part of a wall, door, or cabinet. Typically made of wood, it is usually framed by a border and either raised or recessed.
Paneled DoorA traditional door formed with stiles, rails, and panels.
PanelingWood used to cover the entire expanse of a wall, from top to bottom.
Panel-Track Wall Fabric InstallationMetal tracks available for installing fabric on the wall. Used most often in nonresidential settings.
Paper Wall CoveringPaper front and back; no vinyl coating.
Papier-MacheA material used for the construction of furniture and accessories made from paper pulp and glue. During the nineteenth century these pieces were often painted black and inlaid with mother-of-pearl.
Par LampReflective parabolic aluminized reflector lamp with heavy, protective glass and a focused beam. Silvering is used to establish the beam spread and the reflective quality.
ParapetA low wall or railing built along the edge of a roof or a floor.
Parliamentary HingesThis type of hinges are used in situations where door or window opening is required to be kept free of obstruction due to shutters when open. These hinges permit the shutters , when open , to rest parallel to the wall clear of the opening.
ParquetThe decorative, geometric arrangement of short lengths of wood plank for floors and sometimes walls.
ParquetryGeometrically patterned wood inlay.
Parsons TableA sturdy square or rectangular table with block legs and an apron of equal widths. Designed in the 1950s at the Parson's School of Design.
ParticleboardA solid panel formed by compressing flakes of wood with resin under heat and pressure.
PartitionA partition wall may be defined as a wall or division made up of bricks , studding , glass or other such material and provided for the purpose of dividing one room or portion of a room from another generally , these are non-load bearing walls.
Passive BalanceAnother term for symmetrical or formal balance where items are identical on each side of a central point, and therefore no judgment of the composition is needed.
PastelA crayon of ground pigment bound with gum or oil. Pastel crayons have varying ratios of pigment to chalk and gum; the more pigment, the more intense the color.
Pate De VerreA paste of finely crushed glass that is mixed, heated, and poured into a mold.
PateraA round or oval raised surface design.
PateraeOval (or round) shapes used as ornament, often decorated with rosettes.
PatinaA surface coloring, usually brown or green, produced by the oxidation of bronze, copper, or other metal. Patinas occur naturally and are also produced artificially for decorative effect.
Patio DoorSee atrium door.
Patio HomeA small home set on a narrow, shallow building lot.
PatlonA registered trademark of Amaco for olefin.
PatternIs the repetition of a decorative motif on a surface.
Pattern BookBooks of patterns for houses, furniture, and architectural detail published for general use.
Pattern MatchingTo align a repeating pattern when joining together two pieces of fabric or wallpaper.
Pattern RepeatWall covering or fabric pattern measurement from the top of one pattern to the top of the next, or from one pattern to another horizontally.
Payback PeriodThe number of years that a purchase (such as a solar energy system) takes to pay for itself.
PedimentAwn ornamental detail placed over a door, portico, or window, often found in a triangular shape.
Pediment FriezeThe sculptural design within the pediment.
Peelable Wall CoveringWall covering that can be peeled away from a substrate (backing or lining), which is suitable to be repapered.
Pembroke TableAn occasional table with drop leaves and a drawer in the apron.
PendantsDecorative downward projections used to embellish architectural and furniture designs.
PeninsulaA countertop, with or without a base cabinet, that is connected at one end to a wall or another counter and extends outward, providing access on three sides.
Pent RoofA narrow, overhanging rooflike structure above the first story on Pennsylvania German houses.
PerfatapeA wide paper tape applied to sheetrock seams with plasterboard compound or mud.
Performance BondRequired of the winning bidder as a guarantee that the designer/vendor will complete the work as specified and will protect the client from any loss up to the amount of the bond as a result of the failure of the designer/vendor to perform the contract.
Perimeter LightingLighting around the outside of a room or an area. Perimeter lighting visually expands space.
PeristyleA continuous row of columns around a building. Also used to designate the colonnaded garden area at the rear of the Roman house.
PerlonA registered trademark of Bayer for nylon.
Permanent InstallationsStructural or finish materials that are not likely to be replaced due to their cost or difficulty to install or remove.
PerpendIt is a vertical joint on the face of a wall directly over vertical joints in alternate course.
Persian RugsThe finest of the Oriental rugs, traditionally from Persia (today Iran). High knot count, complex, usually floral patterns.
Personal ComputerA small computer for home or small-business use.
Personal SpaceThe invisible "bubble" of space that surrounds us and that we consider to be our own.
Perspective SketchA three-dimensional sketch or rendering of an interior space drawn in perspective with vanishing points.
PetrologyThe study of rocks, their origin and what they are made from.
PewterA soft, dull-gray alloy of tin, copper, lead, and antimony used to make tableware.
PhotoetchingA printmaking technique in which a light-sensitive metal plate is exposed to photographic film under ultraviolet light.
PhotogravureA printing process based on the production, by photographic methods, of a plate containing small ink-receptive pits.
Phyfe, Duncan (1768-1854)A New York furniture builder, originally from Scotland, known for his Regency-style pieces.
Piano NobileThe principal floor of a building; usually a raised first floor.
Picking OutHighlighting features on molding, such as dentil trim or carved bas-relief, with paint.
PickledPickling is a method of finishing wood which involves a white or off white stain that is applied to a porous wood in order to lighten the overall color, as well as show a contrast in the grain.
Piece DyeingColoring a length of fabric after it is woven into cloth.
PierSame as a column but without its details and proportions.
Pier FoundationWhen a heavily loaded building is to be situated in sandy soil or soft soil , overlying hard bed at reasonable depth , pier foundations are sometimes used to transfer the load of the building to the hard bed below. This method consists in sinking vertical shafts up to hard bed and filling them with concrete.
Pier Or PilasterIt is a vertical member of stone or brick masonry constructed to support an arch , beam or lintel , the width of which exceeds four times its thickness.
PigmentA nonsoluble coloring matter that is held onto the surface of the fabric with a resin binder. A compound that is the coloring agent for paint, ink, crayons, ll-id chalk.
PilasterA shallow rectangular column built into a wall for decorative purposes.
PileThe pile of a rug is the surface of the rugs material, ie: wool or silk. There are different types of ways to treat the pile in order to achieve various looks and feels to the rugs surface. (see cut pile, loop pile)
PileThe pile is the exposed surface of a rug, also called nap or face. There are different ways to treat pile like a cut pile or loop pile, which give a different look and feel to the rug.
Pile DensityCloseness of stitches (woven) or tufts of a carpet. Greater or tighter density yields a more durable product.
Pile WeaveA weave that utilizes a third set of threads that form a depth or a pile in the surface. Types of pile weave include velvet, terry cloth, and corduroy.
PillingTendency of fibers to work into small balls or pills.
Pillow ShamA removable decorative pillowcase.
Pin KnotA knot smaller that one-half inch in diameter.
Pitch Of Roof"The inclination of the sides of a roof to the horizontal is termed as the ""pitch of the roof""."
Pitch PocketAn opening between growth rings that may contain resin or bark or both.
Pl LampCompact twin fluorescent bulb.
Plain SawnThe most common way in which a log is cut, tangentially to the growth rings. Results in the common flam-grain appearance.
Plain SlicingA method used to cut a log parallel to a line through its center?produces a vaulted or cathedral-like grain.
Plain WeaveThe interlacing of threads or yarns in a one-over, one-under sequence.
PlainingThe process of taking the shavings of wooden member is called plaining.
Plan DrawingA flat, two-dimensional, scaled drawing of an environment as seen from above.
Plane Of LightA bank of light; a well-lit area.
PlankIt is the name given to a heavy , thick and wide wooden piece of timber.
Planned DevelopmentA tract of land that is developed into housing of a specific style, size, price range, and type (attached dwellings, single detached dwellings, luxury dwellings).
Plantation ShuttersLouvered shutters with wide blades. Used in the South during colonial days-as screens to encourage ventilation during the hot months.
PlasterA thick, pasty mixture of sand, water, and lime used for smooth or rough wall and ceiling textures.
PlasterboardAnother name for drywall, sheetrock, or gypsum board, plasterboard is a wall material made of pulverized gypsum rock and commonly used as a wall finish material.
PlasticsSynthetically produced, nonmetallic compounds that can be molded, hardened, and used for manufacture of various products.
Plate RailA narrow shelf for displaying plates.
Platform BedA low,self-contained bed frame that features slats or webbing for suspension, eliminating the need for a box spring.
Pleasing MatchA veneer method where attention is given to matching color and grain for a pleasing final effect.
Pleated ShadesFactory-manufactured polyester fabric shades permanently heat set into one-inch pleats. May be metallized on the reverse for energy efficiency.
Pleated ValancesA fabric top treatment that is given fullness through pleating.
PlenumThe space between a suspended ceiling and the floor above.
PlexiglasA highly transparent, lightweight, thermoplastic acrylic resin made into sheets like glass. Unlike glass, it is not easily broken.
PliesThin layers of wood laminated together to make plywood.
PlinthThe portion of a structure between the surface of the surrounding ground and surface of the floor , immediately above the ground.
Plinth AreaThe built up covered area measured at the floor level of the basement or of any storey.
PlotterA computer mechanical drawing printer that can produce drafting, two-and three-dimensional illustrations, and perspectives.
PlumbingThe systems thin carry water, sewage, or central vacuums.
Plumbing ChaseA thick wall containing plumbing.
Plush CarpetA tufted carpet with a dense, short, even pile in solid colors. Originally intended to imitate the pile of an Oriental rug.
PlutonicIgneous rocks which have formed from magma at a great depth in the earth's crust.
PlywoodA product made of thin sheets of wood glued together in layers.
Pneumatic System ConstructionAir-inflated or air-supported structures.
Pocket DoorA door that slides into a pocket recessed in the wall.
PodiumThe base on which Roman buildings are built.
PointIs perceived when a two-dimensionally perceived object appears relatively small in relation to the plane against which it is seen.
Point Or Pinpoint LightingSpotlighting a tiny area for emphasis or a glitter effect.
PointingIt consists in ranking out joints in brick work or in stone masonry to depth of about 13mm and filling the same with mortar of slightly richer mix.
Polaroid TransferA trademarked named for the process by which an image recorded by the camera's lens is reproduced directly onto a photosensitive surface, which functions as both film and photograph.
PolybloomA registered trademark of Chevron for olefin.
PolychromaticHaving various or changing colors.
PolyesterA synthetic long-chain polymer fiber of polymer ester. A durable, dimensionally stable fiber that is highly versatile. Most sheer and semisheer fabrics are of polyester. Used for residential carpeting and scatter rugs and for wall covering fabrics that are often used in nonresidential interiors.
PolypropyleneA modified olefin fiber used for artificial turf, tufted indoor-outdoor carpeting, and nonwoven (needlepunched) carpets and tiles. Also used for a primary and secondary hacking for some carpeting. A registered trademark of Thiokol for olefin.
PolyurethaneA paint and varnish resin that forms a protective coating on wood. Sold under the names Varathane, Urethane, and Durathane.
Pompeii And Herculaneum (Destroyed A.D. 79, Excavation Began 1754)Sister cities on the Ray of Naples (Southern Italy) that contained prosperous classical Roman architecture, preserved by the ashes and lava mud flow of Mount Vesuvius. Archaeological excavations resulted in the introduction of the Neoclassic or Classic Revival style in Europe and America.
Pool Of LightA circle of light thrown by a downlighter or spotlight.
Poppy OilIt is prepared by pressing poppy seeds. It is used for very delicate colours , it is expensive and is thus used for internal painting of light shades.
PorcelainA clay body that is white, strong, and hard when fired. When sufficiently thin, it is also translucent.
PorchA covered surface supported on pillars or otherwise for the purpose of pedestrian or vehicular approach to the building.
PorphyryA granitelike texture achieved by crisscross brushing, then stippling, spattering, and finally cissing paint. Also a type of stone.
Portable ComputerA keyboard, monitor, and drive unit that folds into the size of a briefcase.
Portable LuminairesNonarchitectural lighting such as table and floor lamps or plug-in wall lights.
Portable Space HeatersSmall units that produce heat for a small area or a room. Types include electric and propane heaters; they vary in their size, output, electricity consumption, and safety.
PortalThe porch on a Southwest Adobe house.
PorticoA covered entry structure normally supported by columns.
Portland CementThis is the most widely used type of cement and is so named because of its resemblance of its properties with a well known natural stone quarried at portland. Lime , slica and alumina are its main constituents.
Positive SpaceSpace filled in with a two- or three-dimensional form or shape.
Post PlateThis is similar to a wall plate with the only difference that it run continuously , parallel to the face of the wall , over posts and supports the rafters at their feet.
Post-Occupancy Evaluation (Poe)The formal process of looking at a design once it is in use to see how well it is Functioning.
PotpourriFrench term for the mixture of dried flower petals used to perfume a room.
PowerThe quality of acoustic energy as measured in watts. It is this power that people perceive as loudness.
Prang TheoryAnother name for the Standard Color Wheel theory.
PrefinishesProcesses that prepare a fabric for coloring, decorative, or functional finishes. Prefinishes include scouring, preshrinking, bleaching, mercerizing, and sizing.
Premium GradeGives the highest level of quality in materials, workmanship, and installation.
Prepasted Wall CoveringsWall coverings with a dry paste or adhesive preapplied to the back which is moistened, then pasted to the wall or ceiling.
PreservationMaintaining a building in its present state or the state to which it has been restored.
PreshrinkingA prefinish process of subjecting a cloth to wet or dry heat to cause it to shrink and stabilize before further finishing or coloring.
Pressed GlassDecorative glass formed in molds.
PretilA row of brick trim used to cap the adobe walls of the Territorial-style Southwest Adobe houses.
Pretrimmed Wall CoveringsWall coverings with selvages trimmed off at the factory.
Primary ColorRed, blue, or yellow that can't be produced in pigments by mixing other colors. Primaries plus black and white, in turn, combine to make all the other hues.
Primary ColorsThe three basic colors of which all other colors are comprised of: Red, Yellow, and Blue.
Primary Focal PointThe main point of emphasis in an environment. The object, area, or grouping that first catches the eye.
Primary HuesRed, yellow, and blue, as based on the Standard Color Wheel theory.
PrimersLiquid preparations that seal the surface and prepare it for paint application.
PrimingThis consists in applying first coat or the priming coat on the surface to fill the pores of wood by penetrating the primer inside the wood.
Principles Of DesignScale, proportion, balance, rhythm, emphasis, and harmony (unity and variety).
PrintAn image made from an inked surface. Prints are usually, but not always, produced by multiples.
PrintingApplying color to a finished cloth by hand (batik, tie-dye, stencil) or mechanical processes (automated silk screen, roller, transfer).
PrintmakingA method of in two-dimensional art pieces by various means. See also block prints, engravings, etchings,lithographs, and serigraphs.
Priscilla CurtainsSheer, semisheer, or muslin curtains with ruffles on all edges, on the ties, and as a valance; they meet at the center or crisscross; a colonial style.
Privacy DraperiesA white, an off-white, or perhaps a colored fabric installed on a traverse rod next to the window to be drawn closed at night for privacy.
Private ZonesAreas within a home that dictate privacy?the bedroom and the bathroom, for example.
Problem StatementA short declaration that identifies a design project according to purpose, location, and those for whom the design is being created.
Product DesignThe design of furniture, accessories, or other components that are marketed in the design field.
ProfileAn outline of user characteristics, habits, background, and design preferences that helps determine the direction a design should take.
ProgramEverything that happens or must be accomplished in an interior. It also is the written document that describes what will take place in an interior.
ProgrammingThe research phase of the design.
ProgressionA type of rhythm (a principle of design) wherein shapes repeat in diminishing or escalating sizes or where colors graduate from light to dark. Also called rhythm by gradation.
Projecting FireplaceA fireplace that projects beyond the wall plane to which it is mounted.
ProportionIs the relationship between one part of an object or composition and another part and to the whole, or between one element and another.
Proprietary SpecificationNames the products and materials by manufacturer's name, model number, or part number.
Protein FibersNatural fibers or fabrics whose source is animal based
ProvincialRustic; local; from the provinces or countryside.
ProxemicsThe way people use space and the way that use is related to culture.
Ps LampA pear-shaped incandescent lamp, often with a long neck.
Puarry TileRust-colored tiles that are fired at lower temperatures than ceramic tiles and valued for their natural terra-cotta coloration. Typically square or hexagonal shapes.
PuebloCommunal dwelling of the Pueblo Indians.
PulloutA full-extension cabinet component, such as a built-in pantry, hamper, basket, or shelf that is fitted with ball-bearing slides for ease of operation.
Punch ListA checklist of items to be completed before final building inspection and occupation.
PurlinA horizontal timber laid parallel to the wall plate and ridge beam, providing extra support for common rafters.
PurlinsThese are horizontal members of wood or steel , used to support common rafters.