With the ever increasing population and urbanization, the waste management has emerged as a huge challenge in the country.
About 62 million tonnes of waste is generated annually in the country, of which 5.6 million tonnes is plastic waste, 0.17 million tonnes is biomedical waste, hazardous waste generation is 7.90 million tonnes per annum and 15 lakh tonne is e-waste. The per capita waste generation in Indian cities ranges from 200 grams to 600 grams per day. According to the environment ministry data, about 43 million TPA is collected, 11.9 million is treated and 31 million is dumped in landfill sites, which means that only about 75-80 per cent of the municipal waste gets collected and only 22-28 per cent of this waste is processed and treated. To make it worse, waste generation is projected to increase from 62 million tonnes to about 165 million tonnes in 2030.INDUSTRIAL WASTE
The quantum of industrial waste generation is also on a higher side. More than 8 million tons per annum is India's present hazardous waste generation. Maharashtra (22.84%), Gujarat (22.68%) and Telangana and Andhra Pradesh put together (13.75%) are leading states in the country in hazardous waste generation, followed by Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh. Just these seven states, contribute to nearly 82% of the hazardous waste generated in the country.
However, it has been estimated that there is a good potential for power generation (about 225 MW from all sewage and about 1500 MW from Municipal Solid Waste), of about 1700 MW. Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency (IREDA) estimates indicate that India has so far realized only about 2% of its waste-to-energy potential. As per MoUD, Govt. of India has set a target of generating 700 MW energy from waste by 2019 (Feb 2016 notification).